6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of Lake Water Quality by Using Palmer and Trophic State Index- a Case Study of Upper Lake, Bhopal, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1SSL Jain PG College, Vidisha, Dist: Vidisha, MP, INDIA
  • 2JS Government PG College, Betul, MP, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 2, Issue (5), Pages 1-8, May,22 (2013)


In India, various natural and manmade lakes, wetlands and reservoirs are located within the urban limitsof major cities. These limnetic water resources objectively fulfill various demands of mankind but due to ever increasing anthropogenic influences and extensive urbanization, several water bodies are gradually being degraded badly. The cumulative effects of anthropogenic pressure and exerted pollution load from point and non-point sources are affecting water quantity and quality of these urban water bodies. Upper Lake is one of the important urban lakes of India,located in Bhopalwhich is a state capital of Madhya Pradesh.This lake is being used as a prime source of drinking water supply for Bhopal city. In view of its ecological importance, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has recognized this lake along with another lake (Lower lake) located downstream of Upper Lake as wetland of national importance and designated them as “Bhoj Wetland” in 1998 and later declared as Ramsar site in year 2002.Present investigation was an attempt to assess the Upper Lake water quality by using palmer and trophic state index for better understanding of limnetic chemistry. Results revealed that concentration of important parameters which mainly govern the lake chemistry were found beyond the permissible limits andabove to the threshold level of eutrophication. By perusing the results of Palmer Index, out of 20 Genus, 12 Genus were found with total index value of 27 that indicate organic pollution in lake while results of trophic state index indicate that Upper Lake is in higher stage of eutrophy due to high nutrients loading.


  1. Fang Y, Yang XE., Pu PM., Chang HQ. and Ding F., Water eutrophiocation in Li-Yang Reservoir and its ecological remediation countermeasures, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 18(6)183–186 (2004)
  2. Tong C.H., Yang X.E. and Pu P.M., Degradation of aquatic ecosystem in the catchment of Mu-Ge Lake and its Remediation countermeasures, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 17(1), 72–88 (2003)
  3. Zhang M., Xu J. and Xie P., Nitrogen dynamics in large shallow eutrophic Lake Chaohu, China, Environ Geol., 55(1), 1-8 (2008)
  4. Chen Y.Y., Hui E.Q. and Jin C.J., A Hydrological Method for Estimation of Non-Point Source Pollution Loads and Its Application, Research of Environmental Sciences, 16(1)10-13 (2003)
  5. Parikh Ankita N. and Mankodi P.C., Limnology of Sama Pond, Vadodara City, Gujarat, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(1), 16-21 (2012)
  6. PatilShilpa G et. al., Impact of Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Shivaji University lakes on Phytoplankton Communities, Kolhapur, India, Res. J. Recent Sci., 1(2), 56-60 (2012)
  7. Biomass of Fish Species in the Shadegan Wetland, IRAN, Seyed Ahmad Reza Hashem et al, Res. J. Recent Sci., 1(1), 66-68 (2012)
  8. HashemzadehFarshad and Venkataramana G.V., Impact of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water on Zooplankton Diversity in Nanjangud Industrial Area, India, InternationalResearch Journal of Environment Sciences 1(4), 37-42 (2012)
  9. Safari D, Mulongo G., Byarugaba D. and Tumwesigye W., Impact of Human Activities on the Quality of Water in Nyaruzinga Wetland of Bushenyi District – Uganda, InternationalResearch Journal of Environment Sciences1(4), 1-6 (2012)
  10. Kumar Manoj and PadhyPratap Kumar, Climate Change, Water Resources and Food Production:Some Highlights from India’s Standpoint, InternationalResearch Journal of Environment Sciences, 2(1), 9-87 (2013)
  11. PathakNeelam B. and Mankodi P.C., Hydrological status of Danteshwar pond, Vadodara, Gujarat, India, International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, 2(1), 43-48, (2013)
  12. Parihar S.S. et. al., Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Underground Water in and Around Gwalior City, MP, India, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(6), 62-65 (2012)
  13. Nirmala B., Suresh Kumar B.V., Suchetan P.A. and ShetPrakash M., Seasonal Variations of Physico ChemicaL Characteristics of Ground Water Samples of Mysore City, J. Env. Sci.,1(4), 43-49 (2012)
  14. GholipoorMehranoosh., Lake Gahar Basin: Environmentally Potential for Focused Ecotourism, Res. J. Recent Sci.1(9), 6-12 (2012)
  15. Singh K.P., Malik A., Mohan D. and Sinha S., Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti River (India): a case study, Wat. Res., 38, 3980–3992 (2004)
  16. Vega M., Pardo R., Barrado E. and Deban L., Assessment of seasonal and polluting effects on the quality of river water by exploratory data analysis, Water Res., 323581–3592 (1998)
  17. Upadhyay Rahul, PandeyArvind, Upadhyay S.K. andBajpaiAvinash, Annual Sedimentation Yield and Sediment Characteristics of Upper Lake, Bhopal, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2(2), 65-74 (2012)
  18. Dhote Sangeeta and Dixit Savita, Hydro chemical changes in two eutrophic lakes of Central India after immersion of Durga and Ganesh idol, Res. J. Chem. Sci.,1(1), 38-45 (2011)
  19. Information sheet on Ramsar Wetlands http://www.wetlands.org/reports/ris/2IN011en.pdf Accessed on (03.10.2011)(2011)
  20. A.P.H.A., Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water, American Public Health Association, New York (1998)
  21. Edmondson, W.T., Freshwater Biology, John Wiley, New York, (1959)
  22. Fitter R. and Manuel, Freshwater life of Britain and North West Europe, William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. London, (1986)
  23. Pennak R.W., Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 2nd edn., John wiley and Sons, New York, (1958)
  24. Palmer C.M., A composite rating of algae tolerating organic pollution, J. Phycology, 78-82 (1969)
  25. Reokhow K.H. and ChapraS.C., Lake Quality indices, Engg. Approaches for Lake Management, Butterworth Publisher, London., , (1983)
  26. OECD,Eutrofication of Waters Monitoring, Assessment, and Control, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, 154 (1982)
  27. CPCB, Water Quality Criteria-Designated Best Use, MINARS/31/2009–2010, (2009)
  28. ICMR, Manual of standards of quality for drinking water supplies, ICMR New Delhi, (1975)
  29. Vollenweider R.A., Scientific fundamentals of the eutrophication of lakes and flowing waters with particular reference to nitrogen and phosphorus as factors in eutrophication, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development , Directorate of Scientific Affairs, Paris, Report., 220 (1968)
  30. Wetzel R.G., Limnology, W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, USA, 743 (1975)
  31. USEPA, Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance ManualLakes and Reservoirs, US EPA, Washington D.C., EPA 822-B00-001 (2000)
  32. Carlson E. Robert, A tropical state index for lakes. Limnology and oceanography, 22(2), (1977)
  33. Upadhyay Rahul, PandeyArvind., Upadhyay SK., Bassin K. and Misra SM., Limnochemistry and Nutrient Dynmaics in Upper Lake Bhopal, India, Environ Monit Assess, (2011)