6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Prolonged Gas Flaring and Water Quality in Obiakpu Egbema, IMO State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Human Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Human Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, NIGERIA
  • 3 Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Imo State University, Owerri, NIGERIA
  • 4 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 2, Issue (4), Pages 15-20, April,22 (2013)


Water is essential for life, though human activities have made some water sources unsuitable for human comsumption. This study evaluated the effects of gas flaring on the physico-chemical characteristics of water sources at Obiakpu, Egbema , Nigeria. Surface and ground water samples from the area were compared with samples from Alaoma Owerre-Ebeiri, a non gas flared community. Both water sources were then compared with WHO standards for drinking water. The results revealed that water sources from the gas flared area have raised levels of conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand,chloride, nitrate, nitrites, magnesium, manganese, sulphates, cadmium, lead, copper, calcium, potassium and zinc when compared with water from non-gas flared sources. In conclusion, gas flaring can pollute water sources within oil and gas facilities, thereby making them unsuitable for human consumption. Oil and gas industries should therefore treat water sources within their areas of operations in addition to other remediation measures as part of their social responsibility.


  1. Wardlaw G.M. and Kessel M., Perspectives in Nutrition, 5thEdition, McGraw Hill, New York (2002)
  2. Guyton A.C. and Hall J.E., Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th Ed. Gopsons Papers Ltd, Nolda, India 2010)3.CDC (2013)
  3. Uses and types of water Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1600 Clifton RdAtlanta, GA 30333 (2013) accessed on 14/2/13 (2013)
  4. Yadav J., Pathak R.K. and Khan E., Analysis of water quality using Physico-Chemical parameters, Satak Reservoir in Khargone District, MP, India, Int. Res.J.Environ. Sci., 2(1), 9-11 (2013)
  5. WHO (World Health Organization), International drinking water standards. 4th edition, Geneva (2011)
  6. Kumar M. and Padhy P.K. Climate Change, water resources and food production: some highlights from India’s standpoint, Int. Res. J.Environ. Sci.,2(1), 79-87 (2013)
  7. Edorh P., Gnandi K., Elegbede B. Enonhedo F. Et Boko M., Qualite de l’eau des nappes et son impact sur la santé des populations a Kerou, Revue scientique semestriel, LECREDE, Cotonou, 12 (2007)
  8. Egwurugwu J.N., Duruibe J.O., Abanobi O.C., Ufearo C.S., Nwokocha C.R. and Mounmbegna P.P.E., Physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of drinking and potable water in suburban Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria,Int. J.Nat. Appl. Sci., 3(3),339-343 (2007)
  9. Kinsielounon Gilles E., Edorh Patrick A., Guedenon Patient, Deguenon Yvette, Sossou Bernard, Dougnon Victorien, Loko Frederick, Boko Michel (2013) : Risks of drinking water contaminated by chemical and organic substances in the Lakeside City of So-Ava in Benin Republic, Int. Res. J. Envirobnent Sci., 2(1), 49-57 (2013)
  10. Kraemer R.A., Choudhury K. and Kampa E., Protecting water resources: Pollution and Prevention, In: International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn, Germany, 18 (2001)
  11. Aston-Jones N., The Human Ecosystem of the Niger Delta: An Era Handbook, Environmental Rights Action, Lagos, Nigeria, 136-138 (1998)
  12. NNPC (Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation), Draft Annual Statistical Bulletin, (2011) www.nnpcgroup.com, Accessed on August 12, (2012)
  13. Gobo A.E., Richard G. and Ubong I.U., Health Impact of Gas Flares on Igwuruta/Umuechem Communities in Rivers State, J.Appl.Sci.Environ.Manage., 13(3), 27-33 (2009)
  14. McEwen J.D.N. and Johnson M.R., Black carbon particulate matter emission factors for buoyancy driven associated gas flares, J.Air Waste Manage.Assoc., 62(3), 307-321 (2010)
  15. World Bank, Defining and Environmental Strategy for the Niger Delta, West Central Africa Department, World Bank, Washington DC, 150 (1995)
  16. World Bank, World Bank sees warning sign in gas flaring Increase. Press Release No. 2013/005/SDN, Geneva (2012) Accessed: July 3 (2012)
  17. Kindzierski W.D., Importance of Human environmental exposure to Hazardous air pollutants from Gas flares, Environ. Rev. , 41-62 (2000)
  18. USEPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Volatile organic compounds, http://www.epa.gov/volatile organic compounds. Washington DC (2004)
  19. Idodo-Umeh G. and Ogbeibu A.E., Bioaccumulation of the Heavy Metals in Cassava Tubers and Plantain Fruits Grown in Soils Impacted with Petroleum and Non-Petroleum Activities, Res. J. Environ. Sc., 33-41 (2010)
  20. Nwankwo C.N. and Ogagarue D.O., Effects of gas flaring on surface and ground waters in Delta State NigeriaJ.Geol.Mining Res., 3(5), 131-136 (2011)
  21. Duruibe J.O., Ogwuegbu M.O.C. and Egwurugwu J.N., Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects, Int. J. Phys. Sci., 2(5), 112-118 (2007)
  22. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) Toxicological Profile for Cadmium (update), US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia, 205-1999-00024, 1-305 (2008)
  23. SatarugS., Nisho M., Lasker J.M., Edwards R.J. and Moore M.R., Kidney dysfunction and hypertension: Role for Cadmium, P450 and Heme Oxygenases? Tohoku, J. Exp. Med., 208, 179-202 (2006)
  24. Swaddiwudhipong W., Mahasakpan P., Limpatanachote P. and Krintratun S., Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in Cd contaminated villages in Northwest Thailand: a population study, Environ. Res., 110, 612-616 (2010)
  25. Satarug S. and Moore M.R. Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low- level cadmium in foodstuffs and cigarette smoke. Environ, Health Perspect., 112, 1099-1103 (2004)
  26. Revis N.W., Zinsmeister A.R. and Bull R., Atherosclerosis and hypertension induction by lead and cadmium ions: an effect prevented by calcium ion, Proc. Natl.Acad.Sc. USA, 78, 6494-6498 (1981)
  27. Ross R., The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990’s, Nature London), 362, 801-809 (1993)
  28. Washington B., Williams S., Armstrong P., Mtsshali P., Robinson J.T. and Myles E.L., Cadmium toxicity on arterioles vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats, Int.J.Environ.Res.Public Health, 3(4), 323-328 (2006)
  29. Ganong W.F., Review of Medical Physiology, 22nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Co. Inc. New York (2005)
  30. Hoffbrand A.V., Pettit J.E. and Moss P.A.H., Essential Haematology, 4th Edition, Blackwell Publishing Co., Massachusetts (2004)
  31. Fosmire G.J., Zinc toxicity, Am. J.Orthomol.Psychiatry, 12(4), 27-82 (1990)
  32. Nolan K., Copper toxicity syndrome, J. Orthomol.Psych, 12(4), 270-282 (2003)
  33. Ogwuegbu M.O.C. and Duruibe J.O., Environmental pollution and biotoxicity of certain heavy metals, In: International Conference of the Chemical Society of Nigeria; Chemistry and the Nigerian Economy, Yerwa, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 285-288 (2005)
  34. Holum J.R., Elements of general and biological chemistry , th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1983)
  35. Esonwune A.A. and Amasiatu G.I., Diploma Chemistry for Colleges and Polytechnics.- Edition, Catholic Institute for Development, Justice and Peace Publishing, Enugu, Nigeria (2002)
  36. APHA (American Public Health Association). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20thEdition, Washington DC (1998)
  37. Fabbus M.A. and Fabbus B.M., Water, encyclopaedia of industrial chemical analysis (1974)
  38. Nwokedi G.I., Obodo G.A. and Nwankwo S.I., Pollution Chemistry of the River Niger and its tributaries: characteristic of industrial waste effluents, Bull. Environ. Contamination and Toxicol., 48, 441-448 (1992)
  39. Udedi S.S., From guinea worm scourge to metal toxicity in Ebonyi State, Chemistry inNigeria, 2(2), 13-14 (2003)
  40. Kanu I., Achi G.K., Ezereonye O.U. and Anyanwu E.C., Seasonal Variation in bacterial heavy metal biosorption in water samples from Eziama River near soap and brewery industries and the environmental health implications, Int. J.Environ. Sci.Tech., 3(1), 95-102 (2006)
  41. Course manual for Chemists and Bacteriologists of PHED Laboratories under National Drinking Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Programme, Public Health Department, West Bengal (2010)
  42. Maliki E., Hydrogeologique du littoral beninois dans la region de cotonou (.AO.), These de doctoral du seme cycle Univ. C.A. Diop de Dakar, Senegal, 135 (1993)
  43. Boukari M., Reactualisation des connaissances hydrogeologique relatives au Bassin sedimentaire Cotier du Benin, Cotonou, 134 (1998)
  44. Shivayogimath C.B., Kalburgi P.B., Deshannavar U.B. and Virupakshaiah D.B.M., Water quality evaluation of river Ghataprabha, India, Int. Res.J.Environ. Sci., 1(1), 12-18 (2012)
  45. Oseji O.J., Environmental impact of gas flaring within Umutu-Ebedei gas plant in Delta State, Nigeria, Arch. Appl.Sc.Res.,3 (6), 272-279 (2011)
  46. Etu-Efeotor J.O., Hydrochemical analysis of surface and groundwaters of Gwagwalada area of Central Nigeria,Global J. Pure Appl. Sci., 4(2), 153–162 (1998)
  47. Ekine AS, Iheonunekwu E.N. Geoelectric survey for groundwater in Mbaitolu Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria, Sci. Afri.6(1), 39-48 (2007)
  48. Ehirim C.N. and Nwankwo C.N., Evaluation of aquifer characteristics and groundwater quality using geoelectric method in Choba, Port Harcourt, Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(2), 396-403 (2010)
  49. Khare S.K. and Unni K.S., Changes in physic-chemical factors and distribution of periphyton in Pollar river, Proc. All India Seminar on Water Quality around urban ecosystems, Ed. K.S. Unni, (1986)
  50. Koul N., Lokahande, R.S. and Dhar J.K., Physico-Chemical, Bacteriological and Pesticide analysis of Tap water in Millennium City Gurgoan, Haryana, India, Int. Res. J.Environ. Sci., 1(2), 1-7 (2012)
  51. Radha K.R., Dharmaraji K. and Ranjitha K.B.D., Acomparative study on the physicochemical and bacterial analysis of drinking borehole and sewage in three different places of Sivakasi, J.Environ.Biol., 28(1), 105-108 (2007)
  52. Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L. McCarty, Gene F., Parkin Chemistry for Environmental Engineering and Science (5thed.), New York: McGraw-Hill (2003)