6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2021) and workshop on Intellectual Property Rights on 8th and 9th May 2021.  10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th December 2021 Due to COVID-19.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Removal of Phenol from Wastewater in Packed Bed and Fluidised Bed Columns: A Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemical Engineering, MIT, Manipal University, Manipal – 576104, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Biotechnology, MIT, Manipal University, Manipal – 576104, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 2, Issue (10), Pages 96-100, October,22 (2013)


Water contaminated by phenol is becoming a major problem in water supplies as these organic compounds cause hazards for human health and environment. Different types of columns have been used for water cleanup of organic pollutants from waste water. Many studies report that adsorption using contacting devices are a very efficient method for phenol removal from contaminated water. This paper reviews recent research in the packed bed and fluidised bed columns used for the adsorption and biodegradation of phenol, along with emphasis on their configuration and design, mechanism of operation and the future research and development requirements.


  1. Jung M., Ahn K, Lee Y, Kim K, Rhee J, Park J.T and Paeng K, Adsorption characteristics of phenol and chlorophenols on granular activated carbon, Microchem. J.,70, 123–131 (2001)
  2. Gao R G and Wang J, Effects of pH and temperature on isotherm parameters of chlorophenols biosorption to anaerobic granular sludge, J. Hazard. Mater,145 , 398–403 (2007)
  3. Girish C R and Ramachandra Murty V , Review of various treatment methods for the abatement of phenolic compounds from wastwater, J Env. Sc. and Engg., 54(2), 306-316 (2012)
  4. Hameed B.H., Tan I.A.W. and Ahmad A.L., Adsorption isotherm, kinetic modeling and mechanism of 2,4,6- trichlorophenol on coconut husk-based activated carbon, Chem. Eng., J. 144 ,235-244 (2008)
  5. Girish C.R, and Ramachandra Murty V, Review on adsorption of phenol from wastewater using locally available adsorbents, J Environ. Res.and Dev.,6 (3A), 763-772 (2012)
  6. Girish C R and Ramachandra Murty V, Studies on adsorption of phenol from wastewater by agricultural waste, J Env. Sc. and Engg., (in press)
  7. Vazquez G, Alonso R, Freire S, Alvarez J.G and Antorrena G, Uptake of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption in a Pinus pinaster bark packed bed, J. Hazard. Mater, B133 ,61–67 (2006)
  8. Chang C.C, Chiu C.Y, Chang C.Y, Chang C.F, Chen Y.H, Ji D.R, Yu Y.H and Chiang P.C, Combined photolysis and catalytic ozonation of dimethyl phthalate in a high gravity rotating packed bed, J. Hazard. Mater., 161, 287–293 (2009)
  9. Banat F, Al-Asheh S , Al-Ahmad R and Bni-Khalid F, Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal. Bioresour. Technol, 98, 3017–3025 (2007)
  10. Alhamed Y.A, Adsorption kinetics and performance of packed bed adsorber for phenol removal using activated carbon from dates’ stones, J. Hazard. Mater., 170,763–770 (2009)
  11. Murugesan T and Sheeja R.Y, A correlation for the mass transfer coefficients during the biodegradation of phenolic effluents in a packed bed reactor, Sep. Sci. Technol., 42,103– 110 (2005)
  12. Tziotzios G, Economou C.N, Lyberatos G and Vayenas D.V, Effect of the specific surface area and operating mode on biological phenol removal using packed bed reactors, Desalination, 211, 128–137 (2007)
  13. Sahoo N.K, Pakshirajan K and Ghosh P.K, Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol using Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in a novel upflow packed bed reactor, J. Hazard. Mater.,190, 729–73 (2011)
  14. Quan X, Shi H, Zhang Y, Wang J and Qian Y,Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenol in an airlift inner-loop bioreactor immobilized with Achromobacter sp., Sep. Sci. Technol., 34, 97–103 (2004)
  15. Lua A.K and Jia Q, Adsorption of phenol by oil–palm-shell activated carbons in a fixed bed, Chem. Eng. J. , 150 , 455–461 (2009)
  16. Aksu A and Gonen F, Biosorption of phenol by immobilized activated sludge in a continuous packed bed: prediction of breakthrough curves, Process Biochemistry, 39 , 599–613 (2004)
  17. Tan I.A.W , Ahmad A.L and Hameed B.H, Fixed-bed adsorption performance of oil palm shell-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, Bioresour. Technol, 100 , 1494–1496 (2009)
  18. Nava C.D, Olguin M.T, Rios M.S, Alarcon-Herrera M.T and Elguezabal A.A, Phenol sorption on surfactant-modified Mexican zeolitic-rich tuff in batch and continuous systems, J. Hazard. Mater., 167, 1063–1069 (2009)
  19. Adak A and Pal A, Removal of phenol from aquatic environment by SDS-modified alumina: Batch and fixed bed studies, Sep. Sci. Technol, 50, 256–262 (2006)
  20. Richard D, Lourdes M.D, Nunez D and Schweich D, Adsorption of complex phenolic compounds on active charcoal: Breakthrough curves, Chem. Eng. J, 158, 213–219 (2010)
  21. Teng M.Y and Lin S.H, Removal of basic dye from water onto pristine and HCl-activated montmorillonite in fixed beds, Desalination, 194, 156–165 (2006)
  22. Vijayaraghavan K, Jegan. Palanivelu J.K and Velan M, Removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using crab shell particles in a packed bed up-flow column, J. Hazard. Mater., B113, 223–230 (2004)
  23. Ahmad A.A and Hameed B.H, Fixed-bed adsorption of reactive azo dye onto granular activated carbon prepared from waste, J. Hazard. Mater., 175, 298–303 (2010)
  24. Asheh S.A,. Banat F, Al-Ahmad R and Bni-Khalid F, Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal, Bioresour. Technol, 98, 3017–3025 (2007)
  25. Prakash Kumar B.G, Miranda L.R and Velan M, Adsorption of Bismark Brown dye on activated carbons prepared from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) using different activation methods, J. Hazard. Mater., B126, 63–70 (2005)
  26. Ochieng A, Odiyo J.O and Mutsago M, Biological treatment of mixed industrial wastewaters in a fluidised bed reactor, J. Hazard. Mater., B96, 79–90 (2003)
  27. 7.Lazarova V and Manem J, Advances in biofilm aerobic reactors ensuring effective biofilm activity control, Water Sci. Technol., 29 , 319–327 (1994)
  28. Werther J and Hartge E.U, Modeling of industrial fluidized-bed reactors, Ind. Eng. Chem.Res., 43 (18) , 5593–5603 (2004)
  29. McKay G, Fluidized Bed Adsorption of Pollutants on to Activated Carbon, Chem. Eng. J.,39 , 87 – 96 (1988)
  30. Koran K.M, Suidan M.T, Khodadoust A.P,. Sorial G.A, and Brenner R.C, Effectiveness of an anaerobic granular activated carbon fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat soil wash fluids: A proposed strategy for remediating PCP/PAH contaminated soils, Wat. Res. 35(10) , 2363–2370 (2001)
  31. Vinod A.V and Reddy G.V, Mass transfer correlation for phenol biodegradation in a fluidized bed bioreactor, J. Hazard. Mater., B136 , 727–734 (2006)
  32. Gonzalez G, Herrera M.G, Garcia M.T and Pena M.M, Biodegradation of phenol in a continuous process: comparative study of stirred tank and fuidized-bed bioreactors, Bioresour. Technol. 76 , 245-251 (2001)
  33. Mungmart M., Kijsirichareonchai U, Tonanon N, Prechanont S, Panpranot J, Yamamoto T, Eiadua A, Sano N, Tanthapanichakoon W and Charinpanitkul T, Metal catalysts impregnated on porous media for aqueous phenol decomposition within three-phase fluidized-bed reactor, J. Hazard. Mater.,185 , 606–612 (2011)
  34. Gomez J.L, Bodalo A, Gomez E, Hidalgo A.M, Gomez M and Murcia M.D, Experimental behaviour and design model of a fluidized bed reactor with immobilized peroxidase for phenol removal, Chem. Eng. J., 127 , 47–57 (2007)
  35. Charinpanitkul T, Limsuwan P, Chalotorn C, Sano N, Yamamoto T, Tongpram P, Wongsarivej P, Soottitantawat A and Tanthapanichakoon W, Synergetic removal of aqueous phenol by ozone and activated carbon within three-phase fluidized-bed reactor, J. Ind. Eng. Chem.,16 ,91–95 (2010)
  36. Dong S, Zhou D and Bi X, Liquid phase heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation of phenol in liquid–solid fluidized bed: Simplified kinetic modelling, Particuology, , 60–66 (2010)