6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Environmental Education for Healthcare Professionals with Reference to Biomedical Waste Management -A Case Study of a Hospital in Lucknow, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Environmental Science, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, INDIA
  • 2Programme Specialist, Ecological and Earth Sciences, UNESCO, New Delhi, INDIA
  • 3Centre for Environment Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 1, Issue (5), Pages 69-75, December,22 (2012)


Healthcare is one of the fastest growing sectors in India undergoing rapid transition. While it is a basic requirement of human being, it also acts as a source of life threatening diseases and toxins. The wastes generated from healthcare establishments pose serious threat to the environment and the people associated with it such as healthcare professionals, workers, patients as well as the general community. Environment education of healthcare professionals can help in developing right kind of attitude and behaviour towards healthcare services particularly the management of the Bio Medical Waste (BMW). The present study focuses on BMW management system in a hospital with special reference to environment education. The study was conducted through questionnaire, surveys, and interviews with the hospital administration, doctors, nurses, technicians and other personnel involved in the management of generated wastes. Observation techniques were also used to verify the authenticity of the information given by the respondents. The study results revealed that 58.3% respondents were aware of the legislation applicable to BMW management and had attended training programme on it. Majority of respondents (91.6%) including doctors, paramedical, and auxiliary staff believed that the proper management of BMW was a team work and that safe management efforts by hospital would increase the financial burden while 16.6% of them felt that it was an extra burden on their work. The knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding BMW was found to be insufficient among all the three categories. Overall, the doctors had better KAP than paramedical and auxiliary staff. Paramedical staff had poor knowledge about the subject. The attitude of paramedical staff was very high among all three categories as 39.2%. Some 31.8% doctors were doing good practices than paramedical and auxiliary staff. It may be concluded that there is an urgent need to train and educate the doctors and the staff to adopt effective waste management practices as well as concerted efforts are needed to evolve a continuing education programme for all healthcare personnel to make them aware about safe and effective management of BMW.


  1. Nemathaga F, Maringa S, Chimuka L., Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals, Waste Management,28, 1236–1245 (2008)
  2. Pruss A., Giroult E. and Rushbrook D,. Safe Management of Wastes from Health-Care Activities, World Health Organization, Geneva (1999)
  3. Klangsin P., Harding A., Medical waste treatment and disposal methods used by hospitals in Oregon, Washington and Idaho, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc.,48, 516-526 (1998)
  4. World Health Organization, In: Pruss A., Giroult E. and Rushbrook P. (Eds.). Safe Management of Wastes from Health-Care Activities, Geneva, Switzerland (1999)
  5. Levendis Y., Atal A., Carlson J., Quintana M., PAH and soot emissions from burning components of medical waste: examination/surgical gloves and cotton pads, Chemosphere, 42, 775-783 (2001)
  6. Lee B., Ellenbecker M., Moure-Eraso R., A. Analyses of the recycling potential of medical plastic wastes, Waste Manage.,22, 461-470 (2002)
  7. Baveja G., Muralidhar S. and Aggarwal P., Hospital Waste Management-an overview, Hospital Today,5(9), 485–486 (2000)
  8. Gupta S. and Boojh R., Report: Biomedical waste management practices at Balrampur Hospital, Lucknow, India, Waste Management and Research,24, 584–591 (2006)
  9. Gupta S., Boojh R., Mishra A. and Chandra H., Rules and management of biomedical waste at Vivekananda Polyclinic: A case study, Waste Management,29, 812–819 (2009)
  10. Rao P.H., Report: Hospital waste management – awareness and practices: a study of three states in India, Waste Management and Research,26, 297–303 (2008)
  11. Henry G., Heinke G., Environmental Science and Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Englewood, NJ, USA (1996)
  12. Massrouje H.T.N., Medical waste and health workers in Gaza governorates. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal,7, 1017–1027 (2001)
  13. World Health Organization, Basic Steps in the Preparation of Health Care Waste Management Plans for Health Care Establishments, World Health Organization, Amman (WHO-EM/CEH/100/E/L) (2002)
  14. World Health Organization, Health care waste management, Fact Sheet No. 281, August (2004)
  15. Patwary M.A., O’Hare W.T., Sarker M.H., Assessment of occupational and environmental safety associated with medical waste disposal in developing countries: a qualitative approach, Safety Science 49 (8-9), 1200-1207 (2011)
  16. World Health Organization, Safe Healthcare Waste Management, Policy Paper. Department of Protection of the Human Environment Water, Sanitation and Health, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland (2004)
  17. Tamplin S.A., Davidson D., Powis B. and O’Leary Z., Issues and option for the safe destruction and disposal of used injection materials, Waste Management25, 655–665 (2005)
  18. Patwary M.A., O’Hare W.T., Street G., Elahi K.M., Hossain S.S., Sarke M.H., A. Country report: quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh, Waste Management,29, 2392–2397 (2009)
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), Draft Guideline for Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities, 96-101 (2001)
  20. Askarian, Mehrdad., Vakili, Mahmood., Kabir, Gholamhosein., Results of a hospital waste survey in private hospitals in Fars province, Iran. Waste Management, 24, 347–352 (2004)
  21. Garvin M.L., Medical waste management: the problem and solutions. In: Charney, W. (ed.) Handbook of modern hospital safety. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers (1999)
  22. Patil D.A. and Shekdar A.V., Health-care waste management in India, Journal of Environmental Management, 63(2), 211–220 (2001)
  23. Sabour R.M., Mohamedifard A., Kamalan H., A mathematical model to predict the composition and generation of hospital wastes in Iran, Waste Management,27(4), 584–587 (2007)
  24. Arab Mohammad, Baghbani, Rouhollah. Askari., Tajvar, Maryam., Pourreza, Abolghasem., Omrani, Ghasemali, Report: The assessment of hospital waste management: a case study in Tehran, Waste Management and Research,26(3), 304-308 (2008)
  25. Hassan M.M., Ahmed S.A., Rahman K.A. and Biswas T.K., Pattern of Medical waste management: existing scenario in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, BMC Public Health. Jan 26, 8; 36 (2008)
  26. Sreegiri S., Babu G. Krishna, Biomedical waste management in a tertiary level hospital, in Visakhapatnam, Journal of Community Medicine,5(2) (2009)
  27. Pakistan J., A Study of Waste Generation, Collection and Disposal in A Tertiary Hospital, 401, 13–17 (2001)
  28. Mostafa M.A. Gehan., Shazly M. Mona., Sherief I Wafaa. Development of a waste management protocol based on assessment of knowledge and practice of healthcare personnel in surgical departments, Waste Management,29,430–439 (2009)
  29. Mecklem R.L., Neumann C.M., Defining and managing biohazardous waste in US research-oriented universities: a survey of environmental health and safety professionals, J. Environ. Heal., 661, 17–22 (2003)