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Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 3, Issue (9), Pages 1-99, September (2014)


Research Paper

1. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Anger Management and Quality of Life Improvement among Opiate-dependent Men
Rezaei Omid, Eftekhari Mohammad, Dolatshahi Behrooz and Masafi Saideh, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),1-7(2014)

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The aim of this research was Comparison job satisfaction of athletes and non-athletes personnel of Islamic Azad university of Ghazvin and Takestan branches. The present research is a kind of descriptive and measurement one. For gathering data a scholar made question are has been used containing individual characteristics and JDI that is designed by Visuki and chrome. Statistical universe of the research were personnel of Islamic Azad University in Ghazvin and Takestan and sample statistic of the research paying attention to Morgan table were 100 people that were chosen randomly in a simple form. Reliability of the questionnaire inside the company has been reported 88% by Gholami Fesharaki et al and its topic is surveying reliability and legitimacy Najimahs job satisfaction questionnaire by calculating Kronbachs alpha. Spss software was used for analyzing data descriptively and testing hypothesis. Statistical test was an independent with meaningful level of ./05 results of the research showed that in totally in Takestan university, job satisfaction of athletes personnel is more than non- athletes ones and job satisfaction is most items is 3.6 from 5, that is more than average. So there is meaningful difference between job satisfaction of athletes and non- athletes personnel of Takestan University.In Ghazvin University both groups, I mean. athletes and non- athletes personnel were close to each other is all items related to job satisfaction in a way that, there wasn’t any meaningful difference was meaningful.
2. Crafts and Gears operated in Brackish water fed canal for harvesting Fishes in different Seasons to maintain livelihood of the Fishermen communities
Payra Pijush, Mandal Basudev and Rana Ganesh Chandra, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),8-13(2014)

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The crafts and gears operated in the coastal area of South West Bengal on traditional basis in different seasons for harvesting of table size fin fish and shell fishes are dealt in details in the paper. The brackish water fed canal namely Negua Diversion Canal runs across the Contai subdivision, Block of Egra-I, Egra-II, Ramnagar-I and Ramnagar-II in the District of Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India. Moreover, it is evident that the canal has great potentiality for growth of fin fish and Shell fish resources of freshwater and brackish water. The canal has higher productivity due to the periodical tidal fluctuation of the Bay of Bengal. Because of the tidal inflow, the canal carries huge amount of brackish water which sustained the various life forms like-plankton, seedling of fin fish and shell fishes. The composition of fishes varies from season to season. The major fish species includes - Ilophis brunneus (Turd), Gobiosoma hilebrandi (Balkiri), Scatophagus argus (Vaja chauli), Sillago sihama (Sila), Terapon jarbua (Kunkuni), Eubleekeria splendens (Tekathi), Mugil cephalus (Parse), Eleotris pisonis (Balkiri), Mystus sp (Tangra), Stolothrissa tanganicae (Kagja), Lates calcarifer (Vetki), Synaptura panoides (Pata), Hemibagrus gracilis (Kandhia), Periophthalmus modestus (Danphar), Alosa pseudoharengus (Khayera) , Pomadasys hasta (Khurunda ), Penaeus monodon (Bagda), Fenneropenaeus indicus (Toni) , Metapenaeus dobsoni (Pamra), Metapenaeus monoceros (Honye), Scylla serrata (Kaliya kankra), Portunus pelagicus (Jahajiya kankra), Carcinoscorpius sp (Rajkankra) etc. Different types of crafts and gears used for capturing fishes are Dinghi, Vala, Cast net, Gill net, Scoop net without handle, Hook and line, Fixed net, Suti net, Been jal, Ber jal etc. The approximate production of shell fish is about 160 -165 kg/ha/year and fin fish 250-270 kg/ha/year. Therefore, the fishermen communities who are exclusively dependent on capture and marketing of fishes, for livelihood their socioeconomic status is considerably high as compared to the other people involved in agriculture.
3. Effect of Largactil on Physiology of Reproduction in Adult Male Rat
Mehrdad Shariati, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),14-21(2014)

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Largactil is a dopamine antagonist, serotonin and nor epinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Considering the importance of this drug in treating some nervous diseases, its side effects seem to be important on the endocrine axis. In this research the effect of Largactil was studied on the concentrations of testosterone, FSH and LH level and spermatogenesis. The experiment was done on 40 male Wistar rats strain that were divided to 5 groups of 8. The control group received nothing. The sham group was given distilled water as a solvent. The experimental groups were injected 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of the drug orally for 21- days. The blood samples were taken at 22nd day and the concentrations of testosterone; FSH and LH were measured by RIA method. In addition, at the 22nd day, the testes were separated and histological changes were examined among experimental groups. The results were evaluated by using ANOVA and Duncan’s test. The results showed that, 150 mg/kg of Largactil reduced serum testosterone level while it increased FSH and LH levels (P<0.05). Histological investigations of the testes showed a decline on spermatogenesis chain in dose of 150 mg/kg of the drug. According to our findings, Largactil decreases the concentration of testosterone level and the number of spermatogenic cells and increases FSH and LH levels at high doses. Also, it may weaken the function of reproductive activity.
4. Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon by indigenous Fungi isolated from Ship breaking yards of Bangladesh
Dhar K., Dutta S. and Anwar M.N., Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),22-30(2014)

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Ship breaking activities along some coastal areas of Bangladesh by traditional beaching method release a huge amount of petroleum hydrocarbons, for example, diesel, petrol, anthracene, phenanthrene cause severe environmental pollution and endanger the entire ecosystem. As an attempt to clean up such petroleum hydrocarbons, a well-timed process bioremediation that involves microbes and plants, offers an efficient, cost-effective, easy-to-use and eco-friendly alternative over physical and chemical treatment approaches. The involvement of naturally-occurring or indigenous fungi has been reported to grow on diverse organic pollutants, and their survival in even extreme environmental conditions make them promising bioremediating agent. The present study aims to isolate and identify petroleum hydrocarbon degrading indigenous fungi from ship breaking yards in order to facilitate the candidacy of the fungi as bioremediating agents. Five out of 14 indigenous fungal isolates were initially screened as petroleum hydrocarbon degraders, which exhibited utilization of petroleum hydrocarbon-rich crude oil in mineral salt medium. The concerned 5 isolates were subsequently validated as the degraders of the same of crude oil in Bushnell Hass medium, exhibiting decolorization of a redox indicator 2,4-dichlorophenol indophenol. The degrader isolates were identified as Cladosporium tenuissium, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium corylophilum, Trichoderma koningii and Aspergillus niger after critical analysis of their morphological and cultural characteristics on Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapek Dox Agar media. However, the candidacy of the fungi as bioremediating agent was evaluated by estimating the rate of degradation of common petroleum fuels, kerosene, diesel and octane. All the species degraded octane the most efficiently, followed by diesel and kerosene. Though Fusarium moniliforme caused the maximum degradation of octane (58%) and diesel (56%), Penicillium corylophilum caused the same of kerosene (40%). Hence, this study reveals that the indigenous fungi of the yards spontaneously play a pivotal in restoring a petroleum hydrocarbon-free ecosystem through bioremediation.
5. The comparison of Job Satisfaction of athletes and non-athletes personnel of Islamic Azad University of Ghazvin and Takestan branches
Manoochehr Dezhahang, Ali Hemati afifi and Hasan Nory Nejad, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),31-37(2014)

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Abstract
The aim of this research was comparison job satisfaction of athletes and non-athletes personnel of Islamic Azad university of Ghazvin and Takestan branches. The present research is a kind of descriptive and measurement one. For gathering data a scholar made question are has been used containing individual characteristics and JDI that is designed by Visuki and chrome. Statistical universe of the research were personnel of Islamic Azad University in Ghazvin and Takestan and sample statistic of the research paying attention to Morgan table were 100 people that were chosen randomly in a simple form. Reliability of the questionnaire inside the company has been reported 88% by Gholami Fesharaki et al and its topic is surveying reliability and legitimacy Najimahs job satisfaction questionnaire by calculating Kronbachs alpha. Spss software was used for analyzing data descriptively and testing hypothesis. Statistical test was an independent with meaningful level of ./05 results of the research showed that in totally in Takestan university, job satisfaction of athletes personnel is more than non- athletes ones and job satisfaction is most items is 3.6 from 5, that is more than average. So there is meaningful difference between job satisfaction of athletes and non- athletes personnel of Takestan University.In Ghazvin University both groups, I mean. athletes and non- athletes personnel were close to each other is all items related to job satisfaction in a way that, there wasn’t any meaningful difference was meaningful.
6. Morphometrical Analysis of Blood Cells of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in two different Age Groups
Bhattacherjee Ananya, Mohanty Prafulla Kumar and Mallik Bandi Kumar, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),38-41(2014)

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Japanese quail is an important farm bird in today’s poultry industry and, therefore, study of its blood cells can reveal the physiological condition of the bird. Reports on the dimensions of blood cells with respect to age (fifth week and ninth week) and sex are not adequate which the objective of this study is. Blood of these birds were collected; smears were prepared and stained for morphometrical analysis. Significant difference (P < 0.01) was recorded between fifth week (before maturity) male and ninth week (egg- laying) female with respect to erythrocyte length and lymphocyte breadth. Females of both age groups differ significantly (P < 0.01) with respect to length of erythrocyte nucleus. These differences are believed due to difference in physiological conditions in these two age- groups. The impact of environmental and physiological factors on these birds can be revealed through this type of study.
7. Bioprospecting of Lovastatin Producing Fungi Isolated from Soil Samples
Prakash Chaynika and Shivakumar Srividya, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),42-46(2014)

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The work attempts to select and analyse lovastatin from isolated molds of different soil fungi. Lovastatin an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) enzyme, is a competitive inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Of the 15 isolates of genus Aspergillus isolated from different soil samples, Aspergillus terreus MTCC 479 strains screened for lovastatin production in submerged fermentation after 7 days of fermentation, all of them showed positive when screened through bioassay method by the zone of inhibition exhibited by the fungus against S.cerevisae. Lovastatin production was further confirmed through the laboratory analytical technique TLC. Colorimetric estimation identified Aspergillus sp. no.76 to be the best producer of lovastatin with a level of 137.5 mg/L. by submerged fermentation. SSF using wheat bran also supported highest lovastatin production by Aspergillus sp. no.76 (18.75 mg/g). High Performance chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed that lovastatin from Aspergillus sp. no. 76 has the same retention time with the standard (12.4 minutes).
8. Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) Bioassay of the medicinal plant Pseudelephantopus spicatus from Iligan City, Philippines
Lalisan Jeda A., Nuńeza Olga M. and Uy Mylene M., Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),47-50(2014)

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Medicinal plants are commonly distributed in different regions of the Philippines. Based on ethnomedicinal significance, P. spicatus used in traditional medicine was collected and evaluated for biological activity using the Brine Shrimp Bioassay. Plant extracts were obtained through decoction, ethanolic extraction and extraction with ethanol-water. Four concentrations (10, 100, 500, 1000 ppm) of the P. spicatus extract were used. Mortality of the brine shrimp was observed after 6 hours and 24 hours. The results showed that the decoction and ethanol-water extract were inactive against brine shrimp. However, the ethanol extract showed a toxicity effect after 6h and 24h exposures with LC50 values at 944.07 and 266.07 ppm, respectively. Results indicate that the ethanol extract may have substances that are cytotoxic and that active components of the plant are better extracted with absolute ethanol than with hot water or mixture of ethanol and water. The active components present may have medicinal importance with no no adverse effects, and may support the therapeutic use of P. spicatus.
9. Karyological Analysis of Mud Crab and Flower Crab of Odisha
Satapathy Swagatika and Mohanty Prafulla Kumar, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),51-56(2014)

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The present study focuses on the karyological analyses of two commercially important edible crabs namely, Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus. The number and characteristics of chromosomes of these two crabs were studied from spermatogonial metaphase of testes tissues. A total of 56 mitotic metaphases were examined in case of Scylla serrata (mud crab). The diploid chromosome number ranged from 99 to 108 with a mode at 106 (2n=106), representing 48.2% of the 56 metaphase compliments. A total of 50 mitotic metaphases were studied in Portunus pelagicus (flower crab or blue crab). The diploid chromosome number ranged from 92 to 101 with a mode at 98 (2n=98), representing 50% of the 50 metaphase compliments. Here sex chromosomes were not detected.
10. Potent Inhibition of swarming growth in Uropathogenic Proteus Bacteria by Ethanolic extracts of Emblica officinalis fruit and Tamarindus indica bark
Mamunur Rashid, Abdul Wadud and Aktar Uzzaman Chouduri, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),57-64(2014)

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Medicinal plants have been the principal source for most of the drugs. Phytochemicals having antimicrobial properties can be of great significance in therapeutic treatments. Several pathogenic features of uropathogenic Proteus species isolated from municipal water have earlier been studied. Strong resistance to cephalosporin was found in those strains. This study aimed to evaluate the role of medicinal plants to interfere with the growth and virulence of those strains as an alternative therapy of UTI. Six strains with high pathogenicity were undertaken to a test of bactericidal activity by normal human serum (NHS). Then NHS resistant strains were targeted to combat them by phytochemicals. Five medicinal plants, Emblica officinalis, Asparagus racemosus, Azadirachta indica, Abroma augusta, and Tamarindus indica, were selected for the purpose. Four strains named 11(Pv), 911(Pm), 912(Pm), 661(Pp) were resistant to NHS being 912(Pm) the strongest. Ethanol extracts of A. augusta had no anti-Proteus activity and that of A. indica, A. racemosus showed noticeable inhibition of Proteus cells. However, very low concentration of extracts of E. officinalis (400µg/ml) and T. indica (25µg/ml) completely inhibited the swarming although they had essentially no effect on cell proliferation. Ethanol extracts of E. officinalis and T. indica are potent inhibitor of Proteus swarming. Edible fruit (E. officinalis) known as Indian gooseberry/Amla can be used as food supplement to cure UTI and to control bacterial pathogens having swarming abilities.
11. Studies on Diversity and Abundance of Phytoplankton in Glacial fed mountainous Goriganga River of Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India
Ashok Kumar, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),65-78(2014)

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The paper presents the results that was conducted to analyze the phytoplankton diversity, abundance, monthly and seasonal variations including similarity and dissimilarity index in glacial fed mountainous Goriganga River of Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand” (India) from July-2006 to June-2008. Samples for monitoring phytoplankton diversity and abundance were collected monthly from three sampling spots (spot-1, Jauljibi-600msl; spot-2, Baram-900msl and spot-3, Madkot-1300msl) with in a river stretch of 44 km in the Goriganga river. For the last two years studies on qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytoplankton revealed that some total 46 genera of phytoplankton were encountered during the course of study. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) accounted for the major share of phytoplankton diversity, represented by 27 genera (56.69%); green algae (Chlorophyceae) were appeared to be the second dominating group in terms of phytoplankton diversity, represented by 15 genera (32.60%) while the qualitative analysis of blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) constituted only 04 genera (8.69%). During the course of study, phytoplankton showed the distributional pattern as: Bacillariophyceae (56.69%) > Chlorophyceae (32.60%) > Cyanophyceae (8.69%). The maximum phytoplankton population was recorded in winter season whereas minimum phytoplankton population was recorded in monsoon season. In the present study maximum similarity (s = 0.47 and s = 0.57) was observed among the taxa of bacillariophceae and cyanophyceae during 2006-07 and 2007-08 respectively while minimum similarity (s = 0.25 and s = 0.38) was recorded among the taxa of cyanophyceae and chlorophyceae during 2006-07 and 2007-08 respectively.
12. Impact of Age on the Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in Geriatric Population
Kaur Jaspinder, Singh Sargun2 and Kaur KawaljitInt. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),79-85(2014)

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Old age is unpreventable physiological state and epidemiologically independent risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases and disability among geriatric study subjects. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess various dimensions that affect the lives of the elderly which includes the socio-demographic variables, employment status, lifestyle habits, health and psychological conditions. Chi Square test with statistically significance of p value <0.05 was used for analysis. All patients older than 60 years (N=199) were divided into men (57.29%) and women (42.72%). Men had a higher literacy (p<0.001), employment (47.36%; p<0.001), upper socioeconomic status (48.25%; p<0.05) and physical activity (56.15%; p<0.001) than women. The most common chronic diseases in decreasing frequency are hypertension (60.84%; p<0.01), musculoskeletal disorders (37.69%), anaemia (35.18%; p< 0.001), hyperlipidemia (34.18%), insomnia (32.17%), obesity (30.59%), hyperglycaemia (25.63%; p<0.05), hyperuricemia (20.61%; p<0.001), depression (19.60%; p<0.01), peptic ulcer disease (13.57%; p<0.001), chronic lung disease (12.57%), chronic kidney disease (07.54%), autoimmune disease (07.04%; p<0.05), cancers (05.53%) and chronic liver disease (03.52%). However, geriatric women were more frequently diagnosed with hypertension (71.77%), musculoskeletal disorders (41.18%), anaemia (47.06%), insomnia (34.12%), obesity (15.30%), hyperglycaemia (34.12%), hyperuricemia (36.48%), depression (28.24%), peptic ulcer disease (25.89%), chronic lung disease (17.65%) and autoimmune disease (11.77%) than men. Rising prevalence of chronic conditions especially among geriatric women are considered as the major causes of disability in the elderly population. Screening programs should be instituted at the community level for the early diagnosis, treatment, and further regular monitoring of the treatment compliance to control diseases related morbidity and mortality.
13. Isolation of Cefixime Resistant Salmonella from Hospitals waste and Profiling Multi-drug Resistance Pattern of the Selected isolates
Sikder Mohd. Omar Faruk, Chowdhury A.M. Masudul Azad and Uddin Kazi Nayeem, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),86-92(2014)

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Anti-microbial resistance is a serious and emerging crisis for both developed and developing countries throughout the world. Irrational and indiscriminate use of antibiotics flourishes the development of Multi-drug resistance (MDR) pathogens, raising some conjecture that we are almost at the verge of antibiotic era. Public hospitals play a major role in the evolving of MDR bacteria, because of frequent and excessive use of antibiotics is practiced here. The objectives of the study are the isolation of cefixime resistant Salmonella spp. from three hospitals waste samples in south-eastern region of Bangladesh (Chittagong) and the evaluation of the multidrug resistance patterns of the isolated samples. After TVC, 30 cefixime resistant Salmonella were isolated from the waste samples of three different hospitals (10 from each sample). Among the 30 isolates, 22 isolates were found resistant up to 500 µg/ml cefixime, 5 isolates showed resistance up to 400 µg/ml cefixime and rest of them were resistant up to 300 µg/ml cefixime. Isolates of cefixime resistant salmonella were further subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test by disc diffusion methods using five antibiotics e.g. penicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. Results showed that all the isolates were multi-drug resistant but all the isolates were also azithromycin sensitive. This result describes that most commercially available antibiotics are ineffective against Salmonella whereas azithromycin is still effective against Salmonella and it might be a good choice for the infections caused by Salmonella spp.

Review Paper

14. Conservation: A New Science or an Old Perception
Das Pulak and Purkayastha Pinki, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),93-96(2014)

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Present paper discusses about the way the conservation science has percolated across our perception through various traditions, cultural practices, taboos, and beliefs in India. These traditions and practices have intermingled with our religion, culture, and day to day socio-economical ethos and are silent player in conservation of biodiversity. In search of modern scientific solutions to the ever burgeoning ecological problems these factors are often overlooked, and hence need to be appreciated and preserved to maintain our ecosystems and our own existence.

Case Study

15. Vitamin D Acts as Bio-marker For Predicting IVF Success: A Case Study
Poornima B.N., Govindraju N.L. and Bhat S.K., Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., 3(9),97-99(2014)

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This case study intends to validate the potential of Vitamin D as a biomarker for prediction of success of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) using Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). The study has analyzed the correlation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) concentration with age of 149 women underwent IVF by ART using Pearson test. Success rate of the above women in IVF was compared with 25(OH)D level. The study has confirmed positive correlation between 25(OH) D and AMH and negative correlation between 25(OH) D and age at statistically significant levels. Since AMH has already been identified as an indicator of ovarian reserve and IVF success, in medical literature, it can be concluded that 25(OH) D can be considered as a biomarker for predicting IVF success.