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Effect of packaging on the microbial and physicochemical composition of UGBA (Macrophylla Pentaclethra Benth)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Microbiology University of Port Harcourt P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Microbiology University of Port Harcourt P.M.B 5323 Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 14-24, August,10 (2020)


The concept of packaging dates back to the early times where traditional methods were used. Packaging material such as plantain leaves, polyethene bags and other variety of local leaves are used to package the fermented ugba (macrophylla pentaclethra Benth) seeds. Fermentation impacts various desirable qualities on the organoleptic properties of ugba. The production process involves boiling of seeds, dehulling, slicing and the final process of natural fermentation. The ugba samples used for this study was obtained from various markets in Port Harcourt metropolly, samples were accessed for microbial contamination by culturing, serial dilution, characterization of isolates, biochemical testing for identification and physicochemical parameters such as proximate composition, pH and temperature were accessed. The toal heterotrophic count of the samples from the different markets showed a high count of 2.57×108cfu/g (Choba market) to 2.67×108cfu/g recorded for the leaf wrapped compared to that of nylon wrapped with the least count of 1.92×108cfu/g. the total fungi count also yielded the highest value for the leaf wrapped with counts of 5.15×104cfu/g to 9.7×104cfu/g. All these counts tend to be higher than the microbial standard specified by W.H.O. which states that microbial counts for fermented foods should not exceed 5.0×105 colonies per gram. Microorganisms isolated were Pseudomonas eruginosa, Staphylococcusaureus, Lactobaccillus, sp, Proteus sp, Escherichia coli, Baccillus sp, Micrococcus sp, and Salmonella. Fungal isolates include Saccharomyces sp, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, penicillium sp, Candida sp, and Fusarium. The need for consumption of food product safe from microbial contamination cannot be over emphasized. Packaging materials which encourage less microbial contamination should be encouraged, and production and packaging processes should be evaluated.


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