6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2021) and workshop on Intellectual Property Rights on 8th and 9th May 2021.  10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th December 2021 Due to COVID-19.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Isolation, characterization and antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria from the Gut of African Catfish; Clarias garieprinus

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
  • 4Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 1-6, August,10 (2020)


Clarias garieprinus gut is not a sterile environment as it contains hosts of microbial flora. Though beneficial, some of these microorganisms can be pathogenic and resistant to therapeutic agents which increase fish mortality with unpredicted long term effect on public health. This study was conducted to determine if bacterial species can be isolated from the gut of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus and also to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Five fish farms were selected for this study and a total of 22 samples (composite samples) were obtained; catfish guts were used as test samples while fishpond water served as control. Standard APHA methods were used to isolate and characterize the bacterial isolates present in the samples. Also, Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine their antibiotic resistance pattern. Results indicated that all the samples (test and control) contained bacterial species, though the test samples had less microflora than control. In all, 126 isolates were obtained and through series of biochemical characterization, 50 isolates belonging to six bacteria genera; Escherichia, Bacillus, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were identified. Bacillus spp were the most occurring isolate (2% occurrence) while Shigella spp were the least with only 8% occurrence. The isolates showed varying degree of resistance to the test antibiotics. However, with the exception of Shigella spp, all the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamthoxazole but highly susceptible to roceptrin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin. From this study, it can be concluded that Clarias garieprinus gut harbours microorganisms some of which are antibiotic resistant and can pose serious problems in the management of fish diseases.


  1. Osungbemiro, N.R., Sanni, R.O., Olaniyan, R.F., and Olajuyigbe, A.O. (2014)., Bacteria flora in the gut and respiratory organs of Clarias gariepinus in fresh and brakish water habitat of ondo State, south/west Nigeria., WASET lnt. J. Biol. Vet. Agric. Food Eng., 8, 558-561.
  2. Kato, C.D., Mugaanyi, M.B., Majalija, S., Tamale, A., Musisi, N.L., and Sengooba, A. (2016)., Isolation and Identification of Potential Probiotics Bacteria from the Gut of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus in Uganda., Br Microbiol Res J., 17(5), 1-8.
  3. Austin, B. (2002)., The Bacterial Microflora of Fish., Sci World J., 2, 558-572. doi: 10.1100/tsw.2002.137
  4. Latha, N., and Ramachandra M. M. (2013)., The bacterial Microflora in the Fish Organs: A Public Health Aspect., Indian J Adv Chem Sci., 1(3), 139-143.
  5. Done, H. Y., Venkatesan, A. K., & Halden, R. U. (2015)., Does the Recent Growth of Aquaculture Create Antibiotic Resistance Threats Different from those Associated with Land Animal Production in Agriculture?, The AAPS Journal. 17(3), 513-524. http://doi.org/10.1208/s12248-015-9722-z.
  6. Miranda, C.D., Tello, A., and Keen, P.L. (2013)., Machanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments., Front Microbiol., 4, 233.
  7. Spellberg, B., Hansen, G. R., Kar, A., Cordova, C. D., Price, L. B. and Johnson, J. R. (2016)., Antibiotic resistance in humans and animals. Discussion Paper., National Academy of Medicine, Washington, DC. http://www.nam.edu/antibiotic-resistance-in-humans-and-animals.
  8. American Public Health Association (APHA). (2012)., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater., 22nd ed. American Water Works Association (AWWA) & Water Environment Federation (WEF).
  9. Slaby, B.M., Martin, R.E., Ramsdell, G.E. (1981)., Reproducibility of microbiological counts on frozen cod: A collaborative study., J Food Sci., 46(3), 716 719.
  10. Krieg, N.R., and Holt, J.G. (1994)., Bergeys manual of systematic Bacteriology., William and Wikins, Baltimore Ltd.
  11. Bauer A.W., Kirby W.M., Sherris J.C. and Jurck M. (2000)., Antibiotic sensitivity testing by a standard single disk method., American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 451, 493-496.
  12. Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) (2014)., Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data: Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition., CLSI document m39-A4. Wayne, PA. pp 216-218.
  13. Uddin, N. and Al-Harbi, A.H. (2012)., Bacterial flora of polycultured common carp (Cyrinus carpio) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)., International Aquatic resource, 4, 1-9.
  14. Olaniyi, F.O., Akaniro, I.R., Oguh, C.E., Fashina, C.D., Ahmed,I., and Ezeh,C.C. (2019)., Characterization and Antimicrobial profile of Pathogenic Bacteria isolated from freshly sold Amaranthus viridis in Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria., Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 18(1), 1-8.
  15. Petronillah, R. S., Robert, K. Gono., John, M., and Willard, M. (2014)., Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria in edible fish: A case study of rural aquaculture projects feeding livestock manure to fish in Zimbabwe., Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 3(11), 897-904.
  16. Elsaidy, N., Abouelenien, F., and Kirrella, G.A. (2015)., Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish., Egypt Aquatic Resources, 41, 93-100.
  17. Wamala, S.P., Mugimba, K.K., Mutoloki, S., Evensens O, Mdegela, R., Byarugaba, D.K., and Sorum, H. (2018)., Occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of fish bacteria isolated from Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and Clarias garieprinus (African catfish) in Uganda., Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21, 6.
  18. Shah, S.Q., Colquhoun, D.J., Nikuli, H.L., and Sorum, H. (2012)., Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in the bacterial flora of integrated fish farming environments of Pakistan and Tanzania., Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 8672-8679.
  19. Magioraskos, A.P., Srinivasan, A., Carey, R., Carmieli, Y., Falagas, M., Giske, C., Olsson-Lilijequist, B. (2012)., Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance., Clin Microbiol Infect, 18, 263-28.