5th International Virtual Conference (IVC-2018).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of Ikpoba River Water in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Anchor University, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Anchor University, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 4Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Anchor University, Lagos, Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 7, Issue (5), Pages 1-6, May,10 (2018)

Abstract

Surface waters are always polluted because they are exposed directly to contaminants and therefore do not usually meet required standards. The physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of Ikpoba River was examined to determine the specie composition, microbial load and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated strains. Analysis of the physicochemical parameter shows that all except manganese and iron were within WHO permissible limit. The total microbial population counts ranged from 3.3x103 to 6.7x103 CFU/ml and 4.75x104 to 9.7x104 CFU/ml for the fungal and bacterial isolates respectively. Total coliform counts spans from 434 MPN/100 ml to 819 MPN/100 ml. The microorganisms isolated were Aspergillus flavus, Geotrichum sp, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma sp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., Proteus sp., Bacillus sp and Klebsiella sp.. The percentage of resistance of the antibiotics ranged from amoxicillin (20%) to ciprofloxacin (5%). The variations in the bacteriological and physicochemical parameters of various stations of the river water samples when compared had no significant difference (P>0.05). Therefore, Ikpoba river water is contaminated with substances which may be harmful to human health.

References

  1. Ababiaka T.O. and Sule I.O. (2011)., Bacteriological assessment of selected borehole water samples in Ilorin Metropolis., International Journal of Applied Biological Research, 2(2), 31-37.
  2. Erah P.O. and Akujieze C.N. (2002)., The Quality of Groundwater in Benin City: A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants of health importance in boreholes and open wells., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(2), 75-82.
  3. Edema M.O., Omemu A.M. and Fapetu O.M. (2001)., Microbiology and Physicochemical Analysis of different sources of drinking water in Abeokuta. Nigeria., Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, 15(1), 57-61.
  4. Uzoigwe C.I. and Agwa O.K. (2012)., Microbiological quality of water collected from boreholes sited near refuse dumpsites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria., African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(13), 3135-3139.
  5. Omezuruike O.I., Damilola A.O., Adeola O.T. and Enobong A. (2008)., Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria., African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(5), 617-6721.
  6. Okpokwasili G.C. and Akujobi T.C. (1996)., Bacteriological indicators of tropical water quality., Environmental Toxicology, 11(2), 77-81.
  7. Kumarasamy P., Vignesh S., Arthur James R., Muthukumar K. and Rajendran A. (2009)., Enumeration and identification of pathogenic pollution indicators in Cauvery River, South India., Research Journal of Microbiology, 4(12), 540-549.
  8. Akatah H.A. (2016)., Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of Ikpoba River, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria., master's thesis, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
  9. Kim J., Kang H.Y. and Lee Y. (2008)., The identification of CTX-M-14, TEM-52, and CMY-1 enzymes in Escherichia coli isolated from the Han River in Korea., The Journal of Microbiology, 46(5), 478-481.
  10. Kümmerer K. (2004)., Resistance in the environment., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 54(2), 311-320.
  11. Iversen A., Kühn I., Franklin A. and Möllby R. (2002)., High prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Swedish sewage., Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(6), 2838-2842.
  12. Edjere O., Ibezute A.C. and Ibezute S.U. (2016)., Impact of Brewery Factory Effluent on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Ikpoba River in Edo State, Nigeria., Resources and Environment, 6(3), 53-62.
  13. Benker-Coker M.O. and Ojior O.O. (1995)., Effects of slaughter House waste on the quality of Ikpoba River, Benin city, Nigeria., Bioresource Technology, 52, 5-12.
  14. World Health Organization (2003)., Guidelines for drinking water quality., WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland, 685.
  15. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1998)., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater., 20th edition (American Public Health Associated Incorporation, New York. Washington, 1998) D.C., 213.
  16. Krieg N.R. and Hott J.G. (1994)., Bergy's Manual of systemic bacteriology., 8th edition. 8th (William and Wilkins, Baltimore Ltd. USA, 1994), 353-514.
  17. Cheesbrough M. (2000)., District laboratory practice in tropical Countries., Part 2. (Cambridge University Press. U.K, 2000), 454.
  18. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (1997)., Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests M2-A6. NCCLS M100-S14., 3rd edition., (Wayne (PA). Pennsylvania, USA, 2122.
  19. World Health Organization (WHO) (2006)., Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality., 3rd edn. (WHO Press Geneva, Switzerland, 2006), 1, 515.
  20. Pelig-Ba K.B. (1989)., A Report on an Investigation of Water Quality Problems on Borehole AP216 at Oyibi., (Water Resources Research Institute, Accra, Ghana), 3rd ed., 112.
  21. Ayantobo O.O., Oluwasanya G.O., Idowu O.A. and Eruola A.O. (2013)., Water quality evaluation of hand-dug wells in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria., Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Agriculture and Veterinary, 13(10), 21-27.
  22. Schwartz T., Kohnen W., Jansen B. and Obst U. (2003)., Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in wastewater, surface water, and drinking water biofilms., FEMS microbiology ecology, 43(3), 325-335.
  23. Hageskal G., Knutsen A.K., Gaustad P., de Hoog G.S. and Skaar I. (2006)., Diversity and significance of mold species in Norwegian drinking water., Applied and environmental microbiology, 72(12), 7586-7593.
  24. Bennett J. and Klich M. (2003)., Mycotoxins., Clinical microbiology reviews, 16(3), 497-516.
  25. Morgan J., Wannemuehler K.A., Marr K.A., Hadley S., Kontoyiannis D.P., Walsh T.J. and Warnock D.W. (2005)., Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program., Medical mycology, 43(sup1), 49-58.
  26. Hoog G.S., Guarro J., Gene J. and Figueras M.J. (2000)., Atlas of clinical fungi., Central bureau voor schimme cultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 321.
  27. Jaakkola M.S., Nordman H., Piipari R., Uitti J., Laitinen J., Karjalainen A. and Jaakkola J.J. (2002)., Indoor dampness and molds and development of adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study., Environmental health perspectives, 110(5), 543-547.Tang P., Mohan S., Sigler L., Witterick I., Summerbell R., Campbell I. and Mazzulli T. (2003).
  28. Akinpelu A.T., Akinloye O.M., Olukemi B.C., Adegoke A. E. and Olayinka S. (2014)., Antibiotic resistant pattern of isolated bacteria from Obere River in Orile-Igbon, Oyo State, Nigeria., African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8(12), 1318-1321.
  29. Ash R.J., Mauck B. and Morgan M. (2002)., Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative bacteria in rivers, United States., Emerging infectious diseases, 8(7), 713-716.
  30. Ozgumus O.B., Sandalli C., Sevim A., Celik-Sevim E. and Sivri N. (2009)., Class 1 and class 2 integrons and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from ten rivers in northern Turkey., The Journal of Microbiology, 47(1), 19-27.
  31. Sidhu A.K., Metkar G.J., Nandurikar S.P. and Patil S.N. (2015)., An Investigation on Metal Tolerance and Antibiotic Resistance Properties of Bacterial Strains Isolated From Two Different Drinking Water Sources., Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 4(2), 305-313.