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Habitat utilization by Gulls and Terns in Jhansi and Lalitpur, Northern India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Indian Biodiversity Conservation Society, Khailar, B.H.E.L-Jhansi-284120, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2Indian Biodiversity Conservation Society, Khailar, B.H.E.L-Jhansi-284120, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 3Project Director (M&E), U.P. Participatory Forest Management and Poverty Alleviation Project (assisted by JICA), Lucknow - UP, India
  • 4Indian Biodiversity Conservation Society, Khailar, B.H.E.L-Jhansi-284120, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 5Indian Biodiversity Conservation Society, Khailar, B.H.E.L-Jhansi-284120, Uttar Pradesh, India

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 6, Issue (11), Pages 9-23, November,10 (2017)


The understanding about habitat utilization has long had an important role in the conservation of Aves. Habitat management and its restoration depend on data that indicates the selection of the breeding, feeding and roosting sites. Rich diversity of habitats supports the maximum congregation of water birds in the region and is also home to many resident terrestrial and local migratory species. The species richness and relative abundance of birds depend upon wetland characteristics such as size, water level, quality of water, availability and distribution of food resource. The habitat utilization by the 3 species of gulls (Pallasís Gull, Black-headed Gull, Brown-headed Gull) and 2 species of Terns (Gull-billed Tern and River Tern) was studies in Jhansi and Lalitpur districts from November 2016 to January 2017. All of the five species used the deep and shallow waters followed by Mudflats for feeding, foraging and resting. Pallasís Gulls preferred all the habitats equally. The shallow waters were more preferred by the Brown-headed and Black-headed Gull species. The agricultural regions were utilized by Pallasís Gull, river Tern and Gull-billed Tern. The Brown-headed and Black-headed Gulls however did not use the agricultural areas. The habitats were shared by a variety of water birds. About 30 bird species of 10 families were recorded. There are ample benefits of maintaining the in-situ records of bird species. Within each habitat, there may be more than one species that is vulnerable, threatened or endangered, for that reason it is more proficient to conserve the habitat instead of focusing on any single species. To monitor and manage Gulls, Terns and their habitats, it is vital to have the baseline data. In the study area, there is on hand info on Gull and Tern Species regarding their migration period, nesting and foraging sites and their necessities, type of habitat and utilization of habitats according to seasons. The findings reported here provide a baseline and improve current knowledge on these hitherto poorly-known species.


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