Studies on fungi associated with storage rot of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs in Odisha, India
- 1P.G. Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751004, Odisha, India
- 2Sri Jayadev College of Education and Technology, Naharkanta, Bhubaneswar-752101, Odisha, India
- 3P.G. Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751004, Odisha, India
Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 6, Issue (1), Pages 19-24, January,10 (2017)
A survey of fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of onion and garlic bulbs was conducted in different market places of Odisha, India, in 2014-15. Rotten samples were collected from five different markets of Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Jajpur, Puri, Balasore and Bhadrak. The fungal species such as; Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were isolated from rotten bulbs of onion; Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae were isolated from rotten samples of garlic. Of these, Aspergillus niger has highest percentage frequency of occurrence in onion while in garlic the frequency of Penicillium sp. was more. The percentage of their frequency is 50.3 % and 86.16 % respectively. The result of Pathogenicity test indicated that all the isolated fungi were pathogenic to their respective host and it was found that Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were more pathogenic to onion and garlic respectively than that of other isolated fungi. They cause 69 % and 74 % of rotting of onion and garlic respectively. In order to reduce storage rot of onion and garlic bulbs, there is need to encourage the use of improved varieties, good storage facilities and adequate control measures.
- FAO. (2012)., Onion Production., Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org.
- Raju K. and Naik M.K. (2007)., Effect of post-harvest treatments of onion to control spoilage during storage., Journal of Food Science Technology, 44(6), 595-599.
- Joon T.L., Don W.B., Seun H.P., Chang K.S., Youn S.K. and Hee K.K. (2001)., Occurrence and Biological Control of Postharvest Decay in Onion Caused by Fungi., Plant Pathology Journal, 17(3), 141-148.
- Dogondaji S.D., Baba K.M., Muhammad I. and Magaji M.D. (2005)., Evaluation of onion storage losses and implication for food security in Sokoto Metropolis., Bulletin of Science Association of Nigeria, 26, 10-14.
- Muhammad S., Shehu K. and Amusa N.A. (2004)., Survey of the market Diseases and aflatoxin contamination of tomato (Lycopersicon escolentus Mill.) fruits in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria., Nutrition and food science, 34 (2), 72-76, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00346650410529032.
- Prusky D. (2011)., Reduction of the incidence of post-harvest quality losses, and future prospects., Prospects Food Secur., 3, 463-474, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12571-011-0147-y.
- Susan B. Jepson (2008)., OSU Plant Clinic., 1089 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330-2903.
- Mohanty G.N. (1977)., Studies on diseases of garlic (Allium sativum L.) with special reference to the cause and control of rotting of garlic bulbs in Orissa markets., M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, 72.
- Prasad B.K., Thakur S.P., Shankar U. and Kumar S. (1986)., Decay of garlic bulb in the field: a new disease report., Indian Phytopathology, 39(4), 622-624.
- Mathur R.L. and Mathur B.L. (1958)., Black mould of garlic (Allium sativum L.)., Sci. Cult., 23, 172-173, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398509527415
- Roy A.N., Sharma R.B. and Gupta K.C. (1977)., Occurrence of three new rot diseases of stored garlic (Allium sativum)., Curr. Sci., 46, 716-717.
- Rath G.C. and Mohanty G.N. (1979)., Control of storage rot of garlic caused by three fungi., Pesticides, 13, 26-27.
- Roy A.N. (1983)., Cultural studies on storage rot of garlic., Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Path, 13, 17.
- Mandal N.C. and Dasgupta M.K. (1983)., Post harvest diseases of perishables in West Bengal 1: New host records and a new fungus from India., Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 13, 73-77.
- Sherf A.F. and Macnab A.A. (1986)., Vegetable Diseases and Their Control., New York, U.S.A: A Wiley Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons Incorporation Limited.
- Uppal B.N., Patel M.K. and Kamat M.N. (1935)., The fungi of Bombay., Govt. Central Press, 56.
- Thakur R.N., Singh B. and IAL S.P. (1962)., Occurrence of white rot disease in stored garlic., Sci. Cult., 28, 177-178.
- Khatoon A., Mohapatra A. and Satapathy K.B. (2016)., Fungi Associated with Storage Rots of Colocasia esculenta L. Tubers in Bhubaneswar City, Odisha., British Microbiology Research Journal, 12(3), 1-5.
- Abdulsalam A.A., Zakari B.G., Chimbekujwo I.B., Channya F.K. and Bristone B. (2015)., Isolation and control of fungi Associated with neck rot disease of onions (Allium cepa L.). In Bama, Borno State, Nigeria., G.J.B.A.H.S., 4(4), 35-39.
- Shehu K. and Muhammad S. (2011)., Fungi Associated with Storage Rots of Onion Bulbs in Sokoto. Nigeria., International Journal of Modern Botany, 1(1), 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.5923/j.ijmb.20110101.01
- Rajapakse R.G.A.S. and Edirimana E.R.S.P. (2002)., Management of bulb rot of big onion (Allium cepa L.) during storage using fungicides., Annals of the Sri Lanka Department of Agriculture, 4, 319-326.
- Ara M.A.M., Khatun M.L. and Ashrafuzzaman M. (2008)., Fungi causing rots in onions at storage and market., J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ., 6(2), 245-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v6i2.4818.
- Overy D.P., Frisvad J.C., Steinmeier U. and Thrane U. (2005)., Clarification of the agents causing blue mold storage rot upon various flower and vegetable bulbs: implications for mycotoxin contamination., Postharvest Biology and Technology, 35(2), 217-221, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2004.08.001
- Rangaswami G. and Mahadevan A. (2004)., Diseases of crop plants in India., Prentice-Hall of India private limited, New Delhi-110001.
- Arowora K.A. and Adetunji C.O. (2014)., Antifungal Effects of crude extracts of Moringa oleifera on Aspergillus niger V. Tieghem associated with post harvest rot of onion bulb., SMU Medical Journal, 1(2).
- Bashir L.U., Gashua I.B., Isa M.A. and Ali A. (2013)., The antifungal activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas L. against Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem) that cause black mould rot of onion bulbs in Sokoto, Nigeria., International Journal of Environment, 2(1), 83-90, http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9211
- Ozer N., Koycu N.D., Chilosi G. and Margo P. (2004)., Resistance to Fusarium basal rot of onion in greenhouse and field and associated expression of antifungal compounds., Phytoparasitica, 32, 388-394, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02979850
- Ruchi S. (2012)., Pathogenecity of Aspergillus niger in plants., Cibtech Journal of Microbiology, 1(1), 47-51.
- Dugan F.M., Hellier B.C. and Lupien S.L. (2007)., Pathogenic Fungi in Garlic Seed Cloves from the United States and China, and Efficacy of Fungicides Against Pathogens in Garlic Germplasm in Washington State., J. Phytopathology, 155(7-8), 437-445, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1111/j.1439-0434.2007.01255.x.
- Prasad B.K., Thakur S.P., Shankar U. and Kumar S. (1986)., Decay of garlic bulb in the field: a new disease report., 39, 622-625.
- Ibrahim S.D. (2005)., Fungal pathogens Associated with Stored Onions in Maiduguri and Bama Towns of Borno state., Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Maiduguri.