Fate of Herbicide Granstar (Tribenuron Methyl) in Wheat Field in AI-Nasiriya Governorate
- 1Department of Environment and Pollution, Marshes Research Center, Thi-qar University, Iraq
- 2Department of Environment and Pollution, Marshes Research Center, Thi-qar University, Iraq
Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 5, Issue (8), Pages 22-37, August,10 (2016)
Eleven filamentous fungi isolated from the application field soil with tribenuron methyl herbicide. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus were more frequency with 88.8%, 77.7% respectively, while Penicillium funiculosum, Aspergillus ostianus and Aspergillus versicolor were moderate frequency with 55.5%, 44.4%, 44.4% respectively, but the remaining 5 fungal species were isolated with a very frequency with 22%, 11%. Also the results obtained that the total numbers of fungi were increased after one day from application with granstar herbicide and continue to increase with all weeks and the higher numbers of fungi calculated in fifth week, and the results also showed that the higher degradation of granstar was determined in this week. The results showed that A.niger was more resistance among other isolated fungi with all concentrations of (TBM) in solid PDA medium and the colony diameter of this fungus was equal with control (8.5cm), also the herbicide (TBM) not appear any effect on this fungus with all concentrations. However the results showed that TBM was inhibited A.versicolor 15%, 5% in 25, 50 ppm respectively, but the colony diameter was increased to 8.5cm when compared with control and TBM was inhibited A.flavus 35% in 75ppm concentration only, but this herbicide inhibited P.funiculosum 6%, 9% in 25, 50ppm respectively. The statistical methods showed a significant difference between isolated fungi, but no significant differences between concentrations were obtained. The results showed that TBM was inhibited the mycelial dry weight of A.niger with all concentrations in liquid mineral salts medium, and the inhibition percent reached to 9%, 13%, in 25, 50, 75ppm respectively, also the results showed that the inhibition percent was 2.0%, 31% in 25, 75ppm with A.flavus. However the results showed that the dry weight of A.flavus was increased in 50ppm concentration, and the mycelial dry weight of this fungus reached to 0.761gm when compared with control (0.700gm) and in same time the results showed that the inhibition percent was reached to 14% in 25ppm with P. funiculosum. Also the results showed that the mycelial dry weight of P.funiculosum was increase to 0.519 gm, 0.704gm in 50, 75ppm, when compared with control (0.511 gm). Only among with all fungi under study the mycelial dry weight of A.versicolor was increased in all concentrations of TBM, and also the statistical methods showed no significant differences between concentrations and in the same time this fungus show the higher ability to degraded granstar to other different compounds.
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