Antimitotic Activity of Carica papaya Leaf Extract in the In Vitro Development of Sea Urchin, Tripneustes gratilla Embryo
- 1Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Cebu Normal University, Cebu City, Philippines
Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 5, Issue (6), Pages 12-17, June,10 (2016)
This study aims to determine the antimitotic activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of C. papaya in the sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla) embryo. The inhibition of cell proliferation of the crude extract in the sea urchin embryo was observed in three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.00% and 1.5%) of the extract and two control groups. The time interval of each developmental stage of sea urchin’s embryo treated with the different concentrations of the C. papaya extract was higher compared to negative control group. Comparing the results in cleavage of the experimental groups, the lowest concentration (0.50%) of the plant extract showed the fastest mitotic activity compared to other concentrations. On the other hand, the highest concentration (1.50%) showed the slowest embryonic development compared to other treatment concentrations. In addition, 0.50% concentration showed a comparable result with the positive control on the time interval during 2-cell and 4-cell stages. C. papaya leaf extract showed antimitotic activity in the sea urchin embryos. The inhibition of sea urchin’s proliferation in each developmental stage is dependent on the increase plant extract concentration. The mitotic activity inhibition of the various concentrations of the plant extract and the control group is also significantly different at 0.5 level of significant. Tukey pairwise comparison test result showed that most of the compared treatment groups have a significant difference between the time intervals of mitotic activity. In addition, the increasing concentration of the plant extract increased the time interval between developmental stages. The antimitotic ability of the extract can be attributed to the phytochemical component present in the plant. Previous studies revealed that phytochemical analysis of C. papaya contained saponins, cardiac glycosides, and alkaloids. The phytochemical component of C. papaya is a good indicator that its extract is suitable for a better pharmacological feature and a potent anti-cancer agent.
- WHO (2000). Traditional Medicines Strategy. WHO/EDM/TRM/200.1,2002-2005. http://www.wpro. who .int/health_technology/book_who_traditional_medicine_strategy_2002_2005.pdf, undefined, undefined
- Farnsworth N. and Morris R. (1976)., Higher Plants–The Sleeping giant of drug development., Am. J. Pham. 147, 46.
- Pettit G., Numata A., Iwamoto C., Morito H., Yamada T., Goswami A., Clewlow P., Cragg M. and Schmidt J. (2002)., Antineoplastic agents 489 isolation and structures of meliastatins 1-5 and related euphane triterpenes from the tree Melia dubia., J. Nat. Prod. 65, 1886-1891.
- Guevara A., Vargas C., Sakurai H., Fujiwara Y., Hashimoto K., Maoka T., Kozuka M., Ito Y., Tokuda H. and Nishino H. (1999)., An antitumor promoter from Moringaoleifera Lam., Institute of Chemistry, College of science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
- Fang S., Rao Y. and Tzeng Y. (2003)., Cytotoxic Constituents from the stem bark of dichapetalum gelanioides collected in the Philippines: Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, and the Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy., College of pharmacy, University of Illinios at Chicago, 60612, USA.
- Villasenor I. and Domingo A. (2000)., Anticarcinogenicity potential of spinasterol isolated from squash flowers., Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen. 20, 99-105.
- DOH, Republic of health. (2016)., Philippine Health Statistics-DOH., Department of Health, Republic of health 1999-2003. http://www.doh.gov.ph/node/2720. May 5, 2016
- Teicher B. (2002)., Tumor models in cancer research., Humana press. New Jersey. 23–40. 2.
- Schmitt C. (2007)., Cellular senescence and cancer treatment., Biochim Biophys Acta, 1775, 5–2
- Thenmozhi A., Nagalakshmi A. and Mahadeva Rao U.S. (2011)., Study of Cytotoxic and Antimitotic Activities of Solanum nigrum by Using Allium cepa Root Tip Assay and Cancer Chemo preventive Activity Using MCF-7., International Journal of Science & Technology, 1(2).
- Ansari J., Homa J., Fatima N., Lakshmi V. and Kaleem M. (2013)., Anticancerous Medicinal Plants: Review., International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Research, 11, 378-388.
- Kennedy D. and Wightman E. (2011)., Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function., Advances in Nutrition: An internaional Review Journal, 2: 32-50
- Khanam S. (2007)., General Study of Formation of Secondary Metabolites., Pharmacognosy.
- Cseke L., Kirakosyan A., Kaufman P., Warber S., Duke J. and Brielmann H. (2006)., Natural Products from Plants Second Edition., Taylor & Francis Group.CRC imprint.
- Jamil M. (2010)., Screening of selected plant species of Pakistan for their pharmacological activities., Doctoral Thesis, Grin.
- Hussain M., Fareed S., Ansari A., Rahman M., Ahmad I., Saeed M. (2012)., Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites., Journal of Pharmacy Bioallied Science, 4(1), 10–20.
- Arvind G., Debjit B., Duraivel S., Harish G. (2013)., Traditionaland Medicinaluses of Carica papaya., J. Med Car Pap. 1(1), 2320-3862.
- Yogiraj V., Pradeep K., Chetan S., Anju G., Bhupendra V. (2014)., Carica papaya Linn: An Overview., International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2(5), 01-08 .
- Ostrander G. (2005)., Techniques in aquatic toxicology., CRC Press Google Books, ISBN-13: 978-1566701495.
- Semenova M., Kiselyov A. and Semenov V. (2006)., Sea urchin embryo as a model Organism for the rapid functional screening of tubulin modulators., Biotechniques, 2006 40(6), 765-74.
- Dybas, C. (2006)., Decoded Sea Urchin Genome Shows Surprising Relationship to Humans., National Science Foundation US.
- Wordpress (2012)., Bioassay Techniques in natural products studies., Wordpress, 12, 43.
- Edullantes B. and Galapate R. (2014)., Embryotoxicity of Copper and Zinc in Tropical Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla., Science Diliman. 26, 1 25-40
- Militão G., Pinheiro S., Dantas I., Pessoa C., Moraes M., Costa-Lotufo L., Lima M. and Silveira E. (2007)., Bioassay-guided fractionation of pterocarpans from roots of Harpalycebrasiliana Benth., Science Direct 6687-6691.
- Semenova M., Kiselyov A. and Semenov V. (2006)., Sea urchin embryo as a model Organism for the rapid functional screening of tubulin modulators., Biotechniques. 40(6), 765-74.
- Ayoola B.P. and Adeyeye A. (2010)., Phytochemical and nutrient evaluation of Carica papaya (Pawpaw) leaves., IJRRAS, 5(3), 325-328.
- Okwu D. (2001)., Evaluation of the chemical composition of medicinal plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae., Pak Vet J, 14, 160-162.
- Moudi M., Go R., Yong SeokYien C., Nazre M. (2013)., Vinca Alkaloids., International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(11), US National Library of Medicine.
- Hoffmannováa L., Oklešťkováa J., Steigerováb J., Kohouta L., Kolář b Z and Strnada M. (2012)., Anticancer Activities of Brassinosteroids., Practical Applications in Agriculture and Human Health, 84-93
- Nagle A., Hur W. and Gray N.S. (2006)., Antimitotic agents of Natural Origin., Curr. Drug Targets, 7 (3), 305-326
- Tarkowska J. (2009)., Antimitotic action of glycosides of Nerium oleander L., Wiley Online Library.
- Raff R., Greenhouse G., Gross K. and Gross P. (1971)., Synthesis and storage of microtubule protein by sea urchin embryos., J. Cell. Bio. 50.
- Bray D. (2001)., Cell movements: from molecules to motility., 2nd edition. Garland publishing. New York.
- Sconzo G., Romancino D., Fasulo G., Cascino D. and Giudice G. (1995)., Effect of doxorubicin and phenytoin on sea urchin development., Pharmazie.
- Malumbres M. (2014)., Cyclin-dependent kinases., Genome Biology, 15(6), 22
- Liu N., Fang H., Li Y.N. and Xu W. (2009)., Recent research in selective cyclin-dependent kinase of inhibitors for anticancer treatment., Curr Med Chem.