Bioremediation of Anthracene by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium Funiculosum
- 1Department of Environment and Pollution, Marshes Research Centre, Thi-Qar University, Iraq
Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 5, Issue (6), Pages 1-11, June,10 (2016)
Five filamentous fungi isolated from the upper surface of sediments of center marshes (Abu-Sabayat marshe) in four stations S1,S2,S3,S4 in AI-Nasiriya governorate by using dilution method. The results showed that Aspergillus niger and Peniclllium funiculosum were more common fungi among other fungi isolated in this study with high frequency. The appearance percent of A. niger, Peniclllium funiculosum reached to 100%, and A.versicolor appear with 75%, but the percent of A.ostianus reached to 62.5%, as well as the results obtained that A. fumigatus appear with low percent (25%). The results showed that the different sites in present study were no high effect on fungal diversity in a sediments of marshe because the similarity of environmental conditions in study sites. The results showed that A.niger, P.funicculosum were the highest resistance to anthracene. The colony diameters were calculated in 2, 5, 7 days in the 2.0 mg of anthracene. Statistical methods obtained no significant differences between fungi, but obtained significant with the time of incubation with anthracene . The dry weight of both fungi were also resistant to anthracene. Mixed to fungal was appear A.niger + P.funiculosum the highest resistance to 2.0 mg anthracene in mineral salts medium. Also the mycelial dry weight of axenic culture of of P.funiculosum was higher than control ,but the mycelia dry weight of of axenic culture of A.niger was lower than control. The statistical methods obtained non significant differences between fungi in polluted liquid medium with anthracene. The results showed that both fungi can degraded anthracene to other compounds.
- Juhaz A.L. and Naidu R. (2000)., Bioremediation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review of the microbial degradation of benzo (a) pyrene., Int. Biodeter. Biodeg., 45, 57-88.
- Chaudhry G.R. (1994)., Biological degradation and bioremediation of toxic chemicals., Dioscoides press, Portland, OR, USA.
- Kanaly R.A. and Harayama S. (2000)., Biodegradation of higher molecular weight polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons by bacteria., BacterioI., 128(8), 2059–2067.
- Sutherland J.B. (1992)., Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi., J. Indust. MicrobioI., 9, 53–62.
- Crisafully R., Milhome M.A., Cacalcante R.M., Silveira E.R., Keukeleire D.D. R.E. Nascimento R.E. (2008)., Removal of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petrochemical wastewater using low–cost adsorbents of natural origin., Biores. TechnoI., 99, 4515–4519.
- Yuan S.Y., Wei S.H. and Chang B.V. (2000)., Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons by a mixed culture., Chemo, 41, 1463–1468.
- Das P., Mukherjee S. and Sen R. (2008)., Improved bioavailability and biodegradation of model polyaromatic hydrocarbon by a biosurfactant producing bacterium of marine origin., Chemo., 72, 1229–1234.
- Cerniglia C.E. (1993)., Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons., Curr. Opin . BiotechnoI., 4, 331–338.
- Mahmood S.K. and Rama Rao P. (1993)., Microbial abundance and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil., Bull.Environ. Contam.Toxi., 50(4), 486–491.
- Potin O., Rafin C. and Veignie E. (2004)., Bioremediation of an aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by Filamentous fungi isolated from the soil., Inter. Biodet. Biodeg., 54, 45–52.
- Alexander R.R. and M. Alexander (2000)., Bioavailability of genotoxic compounds in soil., Environ . Sci . TechnoI., 34, 1589 – 1593.
- Baumard P., Budzinski H., Michon Q., Garrigues P., Burgeot T. and Bellocq (1998)., Origin and bioavailability of PAHs in the Mediterranean Sea from Mussel and Sediment Records., Estua.Coast.SheI.Sci., 47(1),77-90.
- Cerniglia C.E. (1997)., Fungal metabolisms of PAHs., J. Ind . MicrobioI.Bio.TechnoI., 19, 324–333.
- Peng R.H., Xiong A.S., Xue Y., Fu X.Y., Gao F., Zhao W., Tian Y.S., and Yao Q.H. (2008)., Microbial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-Review., FEMS . MicrobioI.Rev., 32, 927-955.
- Patricia J ., Maria A., Olivella S., Josep C., Carles C., Laura P., Francesc C., X. and de las H. (2016)., Fungal biodegradation of anthracene– polluted Cork: A comparative study., J. Environm. Sc. HeaI, Part A. 51(1), 70-77.
- Hohnk W. (1972)., Fungi in research methods., Inic.Schlieper (ed.)Marine biology.
- AI-Nasrawi H. (2012)., Biodegradation of crude oil by fungi isolated from Gulf of Mixico., J. Biorem. Biodeg., 3(4), 1-6.
- Pitt J. (1991)., A laboratory guid to common Penicillium species., common. Sci. Indus Res. Org Division of Food processing.
- Klich M. and Pitt J. (1992)., A laboratory guid to the common Aspergillus species and their teleomorphs., Common. Sci. Indus Res Org. Australia.
- Brix H. (1997)., Do mycrophytes play a role in constructed treatment wetlands., Water. Sci. TechnoI., 35, 11-17.
- AI-Jawhari I.F. (2015)., A bility of some fungi isolated from a sediment of Suq 5. - AIShuyukh marshes on biodegradation of crude oil., International J. Curr. MicrobioI. AppI. Sci ., 4(1), 19-32.
- Mohammed A.R., Hashem A.M., Amin M.A. and N.H. Rfky. N.H (2012)., Immobilization and surfactant enhanced anthracene biodegradation in soil., J. Amer. Sci., 8 (3) , 596–602.
- AI- Jawhari I.F. (1998)., A Study of fate herbicide propanil in rice field at AI-Qadisiya governorate and its effect on some water and soil microorganisms., Ph.D. Thesis, AI-Mustansiriya University, Iraq.
- Ravelet C., Krivobok S., Sage L., and R. Steiman R. (2000)., Biodegradation of Pyrene by sediment fungi., Chemo., 40(5), 557–563.
- Mtui G.Y. (2012)., Lignocellulolytic enzymes from tropical fungi: Types, substrate and applications., Sci. Res. Ess. 7(15), 1544–1555
- Giraud F., Guiraud P. Kadri M., Blake G. and R. Steiman (2001)., Biodegradation of anthracene and fluoranthene by fungi isolated from an experimental constructed wetland for wastewater treatment., Wat. Res., 35, 4126–4136.
- Wang O., Zhang S.Y., Zou L., and Xie S.G. (2011)., Impact of anthracene addition on microbial community structure in soil microcosms from contaminated and uncontaminated sites., Biom. Environ. Sci., 24 (5), 543-549.
- Atagana H.I. (2006)., Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated ation and bioaugmentation., MicrobioI. Soil by BiostimuI. BiotechnoI., 22, 1145–1153.
- Mohsenzadeh F.C., Rad A. and Akbari M. (2012)., Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum–polluted soils., Iranian J. Environ.l . HeaI. Sci. Eng .
- Atlas R.M. and Bartha R. (1972)., Microbial degradation of oil pollutant workshop La., State Union PubI. NO. LSUSG- 73- 01. 283-289.
- Nwachukwu S.U. and Ugoji. E.O. (1995)., Impact of crude petroleum spills on microbial communities of tropical soils., Int. J. Environl.Sci., 21(1). 169-175.
- Oboh O.B., Ilori M.O., Akinyemi J.O. and Adebusoye S.A. (2006)., Hydrocarbon degrading potential of bacteria isolated from a Nigerian Bitumen (Trasand) Deposit., Nature and Science, 4(3), 1-57.
- Vargas M.C., Rodriguez R., Sanchez F., and Ramirez N. (2001)., Biological trans-formation of anthracene in soil by Pleurotus ostreatus under solid-state fermentation conditions using wheat brain and compost., Ct. F. Cien. TechnoI.Futu., 2(2), 43- 50.
- Bezalel L., Y. Hadar Y. and Cerniglia C.E. (1996)., Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Plerurotus ostreatus., APPI. Environ. MicrobioI., 62(1), 292–295.
- Vazquez–Duhalt R. and Westlake D.W. (1994)., Fedorak M., Lignin peroxidase oxidation of aromatic compound in system containing Org. Solvent., APPI. Environ. MicrobioI., 60(2), 459–466.
- Boyle D., Wiesner C. and Richardson,A. (1998)., Factors affecting the degradation of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by white rot fungi., Soil. BioI. Biochem., 30, 873–882.
- Yuan S.Y., Shiung L.C. and Chang B.V., (2002)., Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by inoculated microorganisms in soil., Bull. Environ. Contam. ToxicoI, 69, 66–73.