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Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Datura stramonium Leaves Extracts Collected from Eastern Ethiopia

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Adama Science and Technology University, P.O. Box: 1888, Adama, ETHIOPIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 4, Issue (1), Pages 55-59, January,10 (2015)

Abstract

The present study was conducted to identify the preliminary phytochemical identification and antimicrobial investigation of leaves extracts of Datura Stramonium Linn collected from eastern Ethiopia.Datura Stramonium is traditionally used to cure different human diseases including in skin disorder, ear pain, cough, fever, burns, and asthma in Ethiopia. Phytochemical screening test in five different solvents chloroform, hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol, and acetone crude extracts were indicated the presence of flavonoids, cholesterols, terpenoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, phenols, proteins, and saponins. However, glycosides, phenols, and cholesterols were not detected in hexane, petroleum ether, and ethanol crude extract, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of crude extract were tested using paper disk diffusion method against four bacteria strains (S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. typhi) and three fungi strains (F. solani, F. oxysporum and A. niger). Datura stramonium petroleum ether extract produced maximum zone of inhibition (19.300.18mm) against S. aureus while minimum zone of inhibition (12.300.16mm) against S. typhi. Hexane crude extract leaves of Datura stramonium showed maximum zone of inhibition (18.000.27mm) against S. aureus while minimum zone of inhibition (11.050.62mm) against E. coli. Chloroform extract of the plant also showed maximum zone of inhibition (18.430.57mm) against B. subtillis while minimum zone of inhibition (11.510.54mm) against S. typhi. The various crude extracts of Datura stramonium were showed high potential antifungal activity against the tested fungi with maximum zone of inhibition (17.070.16mm) against A. niger was exhibited by petroleum ether extract while minimum zone of inhibition (8.050.43mm) against F. oxysporum was observed by ethanol crude extract. The antimicrobial activities of plant extract were compared with that of chloroamphenicol against bacteria and bavistin against fungi as reference antibiotics.

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