9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Effect of Neurotoxic Insecticide Dimethoate on Unicellular Freshwater Protozoan Ciliate Paramecium sp.

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Life Sciences, Kishinchand Chellaram College, D. W. Road, Churchgate, Mumbai, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 3, Issue (5), Pages 62-66, May,10 (2014)

Abstract

The freshwater protozoan ciliate Paramecium sp. was used to assess the effects of widely used insecticide in agricultural industries, dimethoate, which is a neurotoxin for insects and works by inhibiting the activity of acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. Since the ciliates like Paramecium are unicellular and do not possess any nervous system, an attempt has been made to check whether the ciliates can be considered as potential bioindicators for aquatic toxicity assessment and to evaluate the possible effects of this insecticide on them. In the present study, it was found that dimethoate affects the normal functioning of the contractile vacuole and locomotor movements at the concentration range of 0.5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml (and above) if exposed to the insecticide for 20 minutes and 3 hours respectively. It also affects the growth rate of the ciliate, significantly, by increasing the generation time when subjected to the dimethoate (concentration 0.5mg/ml and above) for 24 hours and 96 hours exposure. Certain physiological deformities were also noted like irregular beating of cilia, blebbing and spinning movements.

References

  1. Miyoshi N., Kawano T., Tanaka M., Kadono T., Kosaka T., Kunimoto M., Takahashi T. and Hosoya H., Use of Paramecium species in bioassays for environmental risk management: Determination of LC50 values for water pollutants, J. Hlth. Sci., 49(1), 429-435 (2003)
  2. Bafna A. and Rathi I., Effect of pharmaceutical effluent on morphological parameters and chlorophyll content of Cicer arietinum and Vigna radiate, Int. Res. J.Biological Sci., 2(10), 12-17 (2013)
  3. Lakhani L., Khatri A. and Choudhary P., Effect of dimethoate on testicular histomorphology of the earthworm Eudichogaster kinneari (Stephenson), Int. Res. J.Biological Sci., 1(4), 77-80 (2012)
  4. Butani N., Jobanputra J., Bhatiya P. and Patel R., Recent biological technologies for textile effluent treatment, Int. Res. J.Biological Sci., 2(6), 77-82 (2013)
  5. Aktar M.W., Sengupta D. and Chowdhury A., Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards, Interdisc. Toxicol., 2(1)1–12 (2009)
  6. Jensen S., Johnels A.G., Olsson M. and Offerline G., DDT and PCB in marine animals from Swedish waters, Nature, (1), 247-250 (1969)
  7. Boone M.D. and Bridges C.M., Effects of pesticides on amphibian populations, Amphibian Conservation, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 152-167 (2003)
  8. Tadehl H. and Ha der D.P., Automated biomonitoring using real time movement analysis of Euglena gracilis, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety, 48, 161–169 (2001)
  9. Martin J., A portrait of locomotor behaviour in Drosophila determined by a video-tracking paradigm, Behav. Process., 67, 207–219 (2003)
  10. Rao V.J., Begum G., Sridhar V. and Reddy C.N., Sublethal effects of Monocrotophos on locomotor behaviour and gill architecture of the Mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, J. Environ. Sci., 40, 813–825 (2005)
  11. Dell’Omo G., Pleskacheva M.G., Wolfer D.P., Lipp H.P. and Shore R.F., Comparative effects of exposure to an organophosphate pesticide on locomotor activity of laboratory mice and five species of wild rodents, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 70, 138–145 (2003)
  12. Somani V., Quadros G. and Pejavar M.K., Occurrence of rotifers and its relation to the water quality during the bioremediation process in lake Kacharali, Thane, MS, India, ISCA J. Biological Sci., 1(3), 54-58 (2012)
  13. Rao V.J., Srikanth K., Arepalli S.K. and Gunda V.G., Toxic effects of acephate on Paramecium caudatum with special emphasis on morphology, behaviour, and generation time, J. Pest. Biochem. Physiol., 86, 131-137 (2006)
  14. Finlay B.J. and Fenchel T., Cosmopolitan metapopulations of free- living eukaryotes, Protist.,155, 237-244 (2004)
  15. Amanchi N. and Bhagavathi M., Comparative study on cytotoxicity of delfin insecticide using two vital protozoan ciliates Paramecium caudatum and Oxytricha fallax, Asian J. Exp. Sci., 23, 55-60 (2009)
  16. Goswami A.P. and Mankodi P.C., Study on zooplankton of fresh water reservoir Nyari-II Rajkot district, Gujarat, India, ISCA J. Biological Sci., 1(1), 30-34 (2012)
  17. Rao A.N. and Hussain M.M., Ecophysiological and cytopathological impact of delfin insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis) to an unicellular ciliate protozoan Euplotes patella, Res.J.Recent Sci., 1(4), 64–67 (2012)
  18. Marsot P. and Couillard P., The use of protamine coated slides for immobilizing protozoa, J. Protozool., 20(1), 105-106 (1973)
  19. Kitching J.A., Contractile vacuoles of Protozoa, Protoplasmatologia-III, Springer-Verlag., 1- 45, (1956)
  20. Patterson D.J., Contractile vacuoles and associated structures: their organization and function, Biol. Rev., 55, 1-46 (1980)
  21. Stock C., Gronline H.K., Allen R.D. and Naitoh Y., Osmoregulation in Paramecium: In situ ion gradients permit water to cascade through the cytosol to the contractile vacuole, J. Cell Sci. 205, 3261-3270 (2002)
  22. Toumani T., Tominaga T., Allen R.D. and Naitoh Y., Development of periodic tension in the contractile vacuole complex membrane of Paramecium governs its membrane dynamics, Cell Biol. Int.,26(10), 853-860 (2002)
  23. Masaki I., Aihara M., Richard S., Allen D. and Fok A.K., Osmoregulation in Paramecium: the locus fluid segregation in the contractile vacuole complex, J. Cell Science, 106, 693-702 (1993)
  24. Curds C.R., An ecological study of the ciliated protozoa in activated sludge. Oikos., 15(2), 282-288 (1965)
  25. Luna-Pabello V.M., Aladro-Lubel M.A. and Duran-de-Bazüa C., Biomonitoring of wastewater in treatment plants using ciliates, J. Indust. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 17(1), 62-68 (1996)
  26. Selivanovskaya S.Y., Petrov A.M., Egorova K.V. and Naumova R.P., Protozoan and metazoan communities treating a simulated petrochemical industry wastewater in a rotating disc biological, Worl. J. Microbiol. Biotech., 13(5)511-517 (2007)
  27. Adl M.S. and Gupta V.V.S.R., Protists in soil ecology and forest nutrient cycling, Can.J.for.Res., 36, 1805-1817 (2006)
  28. Abdel Aziz N.E. and Aboul Ezz S.M., The structure of zooplankton community in lake maryout, Alexandria, Egypt, Egy. J.Agu.Res., 30(A), 160-170 (2004)
  29. Rao V.J., Gunda V.G., Srikanth K. and Arepalli S.K., Acute toxicity bioassay using Paramecium caudatum, a key member to study the effects of monocrotophos on swimming behaviour, morphology and reproduction, Toxico. Environ. Chem., 89(2), 307-317 (2007)