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Larvicidal Activity of Selected Plant Extracts against the Dengue vector Aedes aegypti Mosquito

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences Cebu Normal University, Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City, PHILIPPINES Misamis Occidental National High School, Oroquieta City, PHILIPPINES

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 3, Issue (4), Pages 23-32, April,10 (2014)

Abstract

The larvicidal effects of leaf and stem/bark extracts of Jatropha curcas, Citrus grandis and Tinospora rumphii were tested on the larvae of the dengue-vector, Aedes aegypti. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted to determine the active toxic compounds. Various concentrations (20 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL and 60 mg/mL) of the plant extracts were tested against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and steroids in the leaf and bark extracts of Jatropha curcas while the leaf and bark/stem extracts of Citrus grandis and Tinospora rumphii are rich in alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. These compounds are known to possess insecticidal and larvicidal properties causing the mortality of insects and other pests. All plant extracts showed significant larvicidal activity against A. aegypti mosquito larvae at 0.05 level of significance. Tinospora rumphii leaf extract is the most effective mosquito larvicide which is manifested by the highest percentage mortality on the larvae of 90% and 93% after 24 and 48 hours respectively; with an LC50 and LC90 values of 10 mg/mL and 46 mg/mL respectively after 48 hours of exposure. Citrus grandis bark and Tinospora rumphii stem extracts showed a significant difference on the increased of the mortality of mosquito larvae with increasing concentrations of the plant extracts at 0.05 level of significance. The high larvicidal activity of Tinospora rumphii leaf is supported by the abundance of phytochemicals which show synergestic effects in terms of larvicidal action to mosquito larvae. The larvicidal activities of the three plants differ according to the plant species and part used which is supported by the presence of several bioactive chemicals.

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