9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Inter and Intrapopulation variations in Stachys inflata Benth. based on Phenotype plasticity (An Ecological and Phytogeographical Review)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Arak University, Arak38156-8-8349, IRAN
  • 2 Geographical Group, Payam-e- Noor University, IRAN
  • 3 Department of Botany, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IRAN

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 3, Issue (2), Pages 9-20, February,10 (2014)

Abstract

In present study, inter and intra-population variations of Stachys inflata were investigated. For this purpose fifteen geographical populations of this species were collected from different parts of Iran and for each habitat five ecological factors were examined. Totally, twenty two quantitative and qualitative morphological characters were examined from both vegetative and reproductive organs. ANOVA test and also one-sample T-test showed significant difference for some quantitative characters. In intrapopulation section, 3-4 individuals were elected randomly for each population and totally 59 individuals were studied. Individuals were separated from others in PCO and PCA plots and also average linkage tree. Significant correlations were found between some of quantitative morphological characters with studied ecological factors of habitat. In each population, average amounts of quantitative morphological character were used for interpopulation study. Variations in morphological characters were seen between populations and they were separated in PCO and PCA plots and also UPGMA tree. These populations belong two different phytogeographical subprovinces and also ecological factors were different between habitats; therefore habitats were separated in trees and plots. The arrangements of populations in morphological and ecological trees and plots were similar. Therfore between different populations, similarity or dissimilarity in habitat’s ecological features can cause sameness or difference in morphological characters of plants. This subject confirmed effect of ecological and phytogeographical factors on phenotypic plasticity of plants.

References

  1. Turesson G., The genotpycal response of the plant species to the habitat, Hereditas, 211-350 (1922)
  2. Bradshaw A.D., Population differentiation in Agrostis tenuis Sibth. Populations in varied environments, New Phytologist,59, 92-103(1960)
  3. Bradshaw A.D., Genostasis and the limits to evolution, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-biological Sciences,333: 289-305(1991)
  4. McNeilly T., Evolution in closely adjacent plant populations Agrostis tenuis on a small copper mine, Heredity, 23, 98-108 (1968)
  5. Kik C, Van Andel J. and Joenje W., Life history variation in ecology logically contrasting populations of Agrostis stolonifera, Journal of Ecology, 78, 962-973 (1990)
  6. Schimd B., Phenotypic variation in plants, Evolutionary Trends in Plants, 45-60 (1992)
  7. Bradshaw A.D., Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants, Advances in Genetics, 13, 115–155(1965)
  8. Pigliucci M., Phenotypic Plasticity: Beyond Nature and Nurture, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, (2001)
  9. DeWitt T.J. and Scheiner S.M., (eds) .Phenotypic Plasticity: Functional and Conceptual Approaches, Oxford University Press, (2004)
  10. Jamzad Z., Flora of Iran, no76: Lamiaceae, Ministry of jihad-e- agriculture, Research institute of forests and rangelands press Iran, (2012)
  11. Rechinger k., Flora Iranica, no 150: Labiatae, Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstat Graz, Austria (1982)
  12. Podani J., Introduction to the exploration of multivariate biological data, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden (2000)
  13. Björkman O., Responses to different flux densities. In: Lange O. L., Nobel P. S., Osmond C. B. and Ziegler H. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, new series Vol. 12A, Physiol. Plant Ecology I. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, pp. 57–107(1981)
  14. Fitter A. H. and Hay R., Environmental Physiology of Plants(3rd edition). Academic Press, San Diego, CA(2002)
  15. Sultan S. E. and Bazzaz F. A., Phenotypic plasticity in Polygonum persicaria. I. Diversity and uniformity in genotypic norms of reaction to light. Evolution, 47, 1009–1031 (1993)
  16. Ford N. B. and Seigel R. A., Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits: evidence from a viviparous snake, Ecology, 70, 1768–1774(1989)
  17. Travis J., Ecological genetics of life-history traits: variation and its evolutionary significance. In: Real L. (ed.) Ecological Genetics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp. 171–204 (1994)
  18. Sultan, S. E. Phenotypic plasticity for fitness components in Polygonum species of contrasting ecological breadth. Ecology, 82, 328–343(2001)
  19. Karban R. and Baldwin I.T., (eds), Induced Responses to Herbivory.University of Chicago Press, Chicago, (1997)
  20. Tollrain R. and Harvell C.D., (eds), The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses, Princeton University Press (1999)
  21. Sultan S.E., Phenotypic plasticity for plant development, function and life history. Trends in Plant Science 5, 537–542 (2000)
  22. Odling-Smee, F.J., Laland, K.N. and Feldman, M.W., Niche construction, American Naturalist,147, 641–648 (1996)
  23. Donohue K., Niche construction through phenological plasticity: life history dynamics and ecological consequences, New Phytologist, 166, 83–92 (2005)
  24. Donohue K., Setting the stage: plasticity as habitat selection, Intentional Journal of Plant Science,164, S79–S92 (2003)
  25. West–Eberhard M.J., Developmental Plasticity and Evolution, Oxford University Press (2003)