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Inter and Intrapopulation variations in Stachys inflata Benth. based on Phenotype plasticity (An Ecological and Phytogeographical Review)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Arak University, Arak38156-8-8349, IRAN
  • 2 Geographical Group, Payam-e- Noor University, IRAN
  • 3 Department of Botany, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IRAN

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 3, Issue (2), Pages 9-20, February,10 (2014)


In present study, inter and intra-population variations of Stachys inflata were investigated. For this purpose fifteen geographical populations of this species were collected from different parts of Iran and for each habitat five ecological factors were examined. Totally, twenty two quantitative and qualitative morphological characters were examined from both vegetative and reproductive organs. ANOVA test and also one-sample T-test showed significant difference for some quantitative characters. In intrapopulation section, 3-4 individuals were elected randomly for each population and totally 59 individuals were studied. Individuals were separated from others in PCO and PCA plots and also average linkage tree. Significant correlations were found between some of quantitative morphological characters with studied ecological factors of habitat. In each population, average amounts of quantitative morphological character were used for interpopulation study. Variations in morphological characters were seen between populations and they were separated in PCO and PCA plots and also UPGMA tree. These populations belong two different phytogeographical subprovinces and also ecological factors were different between habitats; therefore habitats were separated in trees and plots. The arrangements of populations in morphological and ecological trees and plots were similar. Therfore between different populations, similarity or dissimilarity in habitat’s ecological features can cause sameness or difference in morphological characters of plants. This subject confirmed effect of ecological and phytogeographical factors on phenotypic plasticity of plants.


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