9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Leaf Architecture of two Species and nine Infraspecific Taxa of the Philippine Mussaenda Linn. (Rubiaceae): Conservation concerns

Author Affiliations

  • 1Forest Biological Sciences, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College Laguna 4031 Laguna, PHILIPPINES
  • 2Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, and Faculty of Management and Development Studies, University of Philippines Open University, Los Baños, 4031 Laguna, PHILIPPINES

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 3, Issue (10), Pages 13-21, October,10 (2014)


Two Mussaenda species are included in this study with additional 9 infraspecific taxa making up the total of 11 Philippine Mussaenda species studied. Specimen morphological characters were described and a dichotomous key constructed. Notably, results showed that characters of areolation, secondary vein category, tertiary vein angle variability and quaternary veins proved the most useful. This demonstrates that leaf architecture is an important tool in distinguishing infraspecific taxa just as other parameters used by taxonomists to recognize differences among plants. It is a good tool for plant identification especially in the case where flowers and fruits are not available. There is a need to conserve the genus Mussaenda Linn. due to its ornamental qualities and the over exploitation it is faced with from individuals for home yard beauties.


  1. Swaminathan C., Vijendra Rao R. and Shashikala S., Preliminary Evaluation of Variations in Anatomical Properties of Melia dubia Cav. Wood, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,1(4), 1-6 (2012)
  2. Hernández Israel, Rodríguez J. Victor, Romero Omar, Hernández J. Santos, Macías Antonio, López HiguinioHerrera J. Guadalupe., Morphometric Characterization of Creole Sheep without Ear of the Sierra North State of Puebla-MexicoInt. Res. J. Biological Sci.,2(5), 1-8 (2013)
  3. Salvaña F.R.P. and Buot Jr. I.E. Leaf architectural Study of Hoya coriacea, Hoya halconensis and Hoya buotii (Apocynaceae), Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,3(3), 37-44 (2014)
  4. Celadiña D.A., Buot Jr. I.E., Madulid., Evangelista T.T. and Tandang D.N., Leaf Architecture of selected Philippine Cinnamomum Schaeff, (Lauraceae) Species, The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal,6(2), 89-111 (2012)
  5. Torres, M.A., Demayo, C., and Siar, S., Elliptic Fourier Analysis of Leaf Outline Differences Between and Among sixteen Species of Hoya, The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 91(1), 18–28 (2008)
  6. Lu H., Jiang W., Ghiassi M., Lee, S. and Nitin, M., Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques, PLoS ONE 7(1), e29704, (2012)
  7. Pacheco-Trejo J., Terrazas T., and Ochoterena H., Leaf architecture of the genus Didymaea Hook. f. (Rubiaceae), Plant Syst. Evol.,281, 137-149 (2009)
  8. Loutfy M.H.A., Karakish, E.A.K., Khalifa, S.F. and Mira, E.R.A., Numerical taxonomic evaluation of leaf architecture of some species of Genus Ficus L., International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 7(3),352-357, (2005)
  9. Roth-Nebelsick A., Uhl, D., Morsbrugger, V., and Kerp, H., Evolution and function of leaf venation architecture: A review, Ann. Bot.,87, 553–566, (2001)
  10. McLellan T., The roles of heterochrony and heteroplasty in the diversification of leaf shape in Begonia dregei(Begoniaceae), American Journal of Botany, 80, 796 – 804, (1993)
  11. Merriell E.K., Comparison of mature leaf architecture of three types in Sorbus L. (Rosaceae), Bot. Gaz., 139, 447 – 53, (1978)
  12. Pulan, D.E. and Buot, I.E Jr. 2013. Leaf Architecture of Philippine Shorea species (Dipterocarpaceae), Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,3(5), 19-26 (2014)
  13. Larano A.A.P. and Buot Jr, I.E., Leaf Architecture of selected species of Malvaceae sensu APG and its Taxonomic Significance, Philippines Journal of Systematic Biology,, 211 – 54 (2010)
  14. Banaticla M.C.N. and I.E. Buot Jr., Leaf architecture of ten Philippine Psychotria species (Rubiaceae), The Philippine Scientist,41, 74-90 (2004)
  15. Frole K. and Sack L., Leaf Structural Diversity. Ecology, 87(2), 483 – 491 (2006)
  16. Boyce C.K., Holbrook N.M, Melcher C.K, Sack L and Zwieniecki M.A. Hydraulic architecture of Leaf Venation in Laurus nobilis L. Plant, Cell and Environment,25, 1445 – 1450 (2002)
  17. Buckler E. Genome-wide association study of leaf architecture in maize nested mapping population, Nature Genetics, 43, 159 – 162 (2011)
  18. Jayaweera, Adventitious Root Formation and Development in cuttings of Mussaenda erythrophylla L, Schum. and Thonn, Hort Science,3(16), 1023 – 1025 (1996)
  19. Latin-Rosario, Ornamental Mussaendas of the Philippines. Revised Edition. College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Banos Revised Edition (2000)
  20. Stuart G., Philippine Alternative Medicine (StuartXchange). Retrieved from http://stuartxchange.com/ on 27 April (2014)
  21. Bafna, A. and Rathi, I., Effects of pharmaceutical effluent on Morphological Parameters and Chlorophyll Content of Cicer arietum and Vigna radiata, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,2(10), 12-17, (2013)
  22. Ogbe A.O. and John P. Affiku. Effect of Polyherbal Aqueous Extracts (Moringa oleifera, Gum arabic and wild Ganoderma lucidum) in Comparison with Antibiotic on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters of Broiler Chickens, Res.J.Recent Sci.,1(7), 10-18 (2012)
  23. MacDonald Idu. Science and Technology in the 21st Century: Phytomedicine in Focus, Res. J. Recent Sci.,2(1),1-7 (2013)
  24. Morabandza C.J., Ongoka R.P., Matini L., Epa C., Nkounkou L.C. and Abena A.A. Chemical Composition of the Mesocarp of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae) Fruit, Res. J. Recent Sci.,2(1), 53-58 (2013)
  25. Alagammal M., Paulpriya K. and Mohan V.R. Anticancer activity of Ethanol extract of Polygala javana DCwhole Plant Against Dalton Ascites Lymphoma, Res. J. Recent Sci.,2(2), 18-22 (2013)
  26. Fateme Aboee-Mehrizi, Mohammad Hossein Farjam, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Ali Zare, Maryam Salari. Volatile Constituents of Salvia compressa and Logochilus macranthus, two Labiatae Herbs Growing wild in Iran, Res. J. Recent Sci.,2(2), 66-68 (2013)
  27. Ufele A.N., Nnajidenma U.P., Ebenebe C.I., Mogbo T.C., Aziagba B.O. and Akunne C.E., The Effect of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Leaf Extract on Longevity of Snails (Achatina achatina), Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,2(1), 61-63 (2013)
  28. Leaf Architecture Working Group, (LAWG), Manual of Leaf architecture - morphological description and categorization of dicotyledonous and net-veined monocotyledonous angiosperms, Smithsonian Institution, 65, (1999)
  29. Hickey, Classification of the Architecture of dicotyledonous leaves, American Journal of Botany, 60, 17-33 (1973)
  30. Dilcher, Approaches to the identification of angiosperm leaves. The Botanical Review, 40, 1–157 (1975)
  31. Fuller, D.Q. and Hickey, L. J., Systematics and Leaf Architecture of the Gunneraceae, Botanical Review, 71(3),295 – 353 (2005)
  32. Hickey L.J. and Taylor D.W., The Leaf Architecture of Ticodendron and Application of Foliar Characters inDiscerning its Relationships, Ann. Missouri. Bot. Gard., 78, 105 – 130, (1991)
  33. Baroga, Jessica B., Buot Jr. Inocencio E. 2014. Leaf Architecture of Ten Species of Philippine Terminalia Linn, Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.,3(3), 83 – 88 (2014)
  34. Obico J.J., Bagay K.C., Asencion A.S. and Medecillo M.M., Comparative Study of the Leaf Morphology of Epipremnum Schot and Rhaphidophora Hassk. (Araceae) in the Philippines, Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology,1(1), 15 – 25 (2007)