6th International Virtual Congress (IYSC-2020) And Workshop. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Phytotoxic Effects of Cadmium on Seed Germination, Early Seedling Growth and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cucurbita maxima Duchesne

Author Affiliations

  • 1 PG Department of Botany and Research, Sree Narayana College, Nattika, Thrissur, Kerala, INDIA
  • 2

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (9), Pages 40-47, September,10 (2013)

Abstract

The environment is constantly being polluted by the accumulation of heavy metal contaminants. This is a matter of serious concern as it adversely affects the health of humans and animals. These contaminants also pose a major threat to Agricultural sector. Cadmium is an important heavy metal extensively used in electronic and other industries. The present investigation was conducted to determine the phytotoxic effect of heavy metal cadmium on seed germination, early seedling growth and antioxidant enzymes activity of Cucurbitamaxima Duchesne. The different dilutions of cadmium (25ppm; 50ppm; 100ppm; 250ppm and 500ppm) were used. Various parameters considered for the study includes percent seed germination, root and shoot elongation, seedling size, fresh and dry weight, root/shoot ratio, dry weight/fresh weight ratio, seedling vigor index, inhibition of seedling growth, tolerance index, activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the tested concentrations were found inhibitory in action with respect to all the parameters, with the exception of dry weight/fresh weight ratio and activities of antioxidant enzymes which were found to gradually increase as the concentration of cadmium increased. However a slight decline in antioxidant enzyme activities was recorded due to acute cadmium stress at higher level (s). The intensity of inhibitory effect on all other parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of cadmium solution employed and inhibition was more prominent at 250ppm and 500ppm.

References

  1. Kabir M., Iqbal M.Z., Shafiq M. and Farooqi Z.R., Reduction in germination and seedling growth of Thespesiapopulnea L., caused by lead and cadmium treatments, Pak. J. Bot., 40(6), 2419-2426 (2008)
  2. Arun K.S., Cervantes C., Loza-Tavera H. and Avudainayagam S., Chromium toxicity in plants, Environ. Int., 31, 739-753 (2005)
  3. Gardea-Torresdey J.L., Polette L., Arteaga S., Tiemann K.J., Bibb J. and Gonzalez J.H., Determination of the content of hazardous heavy metals on Larrea tridentata grown around a contaminated area. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual EPA Conf. On Hazardous Waste Research, Edited by L.R. Erickson, D.L. Tillison S.C. Grant and J.P. McDonald, Albuquerque, NM, 660 (1996)
  4. Patra M., Bhowmik N., Bandopadhyay B. and Sharma A., Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 52(3), 199-223 (2004)
  5. Williams C.H. and David D.J., The effect of superphosphate on the cadmium content of soils and plants, Aust. J. Soil Res., 11, 43-56 (1973)
  6. Arduini I., Godbold D.L. and Onnis A., Cadmium and copper uptake and distribution in Mediterranean tree seedlings, Physiol. Plant., 97, 111-117 (1996)
  7. Wu L. and Lin S.L., Copper tolerance and copper uptake of Lotus purshianus (Benth.) and its symbiotic Rhizobium loti from a copper mine waste population, New Phytol., 11,531-539 (1990)
  8. ISTA., International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules 1996, International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Seed Science and Technology, 24 (supplement). Zurich, Switzerland (1996)
  9. Moradi D., Sharifzadeh P. F. and Janmohammadi M., influence of priming techniques on seed germination behavior of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.), ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 3, 22-25 (2008)
  10. Wilkins D.A., The measurement of tolerance to edaphic factors by means of root growth, New Phytol.,80, 623633 (1978)
  11. Kakkar P., Das B. and Viswanathan P.W., Modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase, Indian Journal of Biochemical Biophysics, 2, 130132 (1984)
  12. Luck H., Estimation of catalase. In: Methods in Enzymatic Analysis (Eds), Luck. H. Bergmeyer Academic Press, New York, 885 (1974)
  13. Reddy K.P., Subhani S.M., Khan P.A. and Kumar K.B., Effect of light and benzyl adenine on dark-treated growing rice leaves, II changes in peroxidase activity, Plant cell Physiol., 24, 987-994 (1995)
  14. Seyed Amir Moosavi1, Mohammad Hossain Gharineh1, Reza Tavakkol Afshari. and Amin Ebrahimi, Effects of Some Heavy Metals on Seed Germination Characteristics of Canola (Barassica napus), Wheat Triticum aestivum) and Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious) to Evaluate Phytoremediation Potential of These Crops, Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 9 (2012)
  15. Breckle S.W. and Kahle H., Effect of toxic heavy metals (Cd, Ph) on growth and mineral nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Vegetation, 101, 43-53 (1992)
  16. Shafiq M., Zafar I.M. and Athar M., Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 12, 61- 66 (2008)
  17. Mostafa Heidariand Semin Sarani, Effects of lead and cadmium on seed germination, seedling growth and antioxidant enzymes activities of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.), ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 6(1), 44-47 (2011)
  18. Padmaja K., Prasad D.D.K. and Prasad A.R.K., Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris Seedlings by cadmium acetate, Photosynthetica, 24, 399-405 (1990)
  19. John R., Ahmad P., Gadgila K. and Sharma S., Heavy metal toxicity: Effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea L., International Journal of Plant Production, 3 (3) (2009)
  20. Salisbury F.B. and Ross C.W., Plant Physiology, CBS Publishers and distributors, Delhi, India (1986)
  21. Liu D.H., Jaing W.S. and Li M.X., Effect of chromium on root growth and cell division of Allium cepa, Israel J. Plant Sci., 42, 235-243 (1993)
  22. Panda S.K., The biology of oxidative stress in green cells: A Review. In: Panda S.K. (ed), Advances of stress physiology of plants, 1-13, Scientific Publishers, Jhodpur, India (2002)
  23. Smirnoff N., The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation, New Phytol, 125,27-58 (1993)
  24. Gomez J.M., Hernandez J.A., Jimenez A., Del Rio L.A. and Sevilla R., Differential responses of antioxidative enzymes of chloroplasts and mitochondria to long-term NaCl stress of pea plants, Radic. Res, 31, 11-18 (1999)
  25. Shahram Namjooyan, Ramezanali Khavari-Nejad, Franceous Bernard, Shahrokh Namdjoyan and Hamed Piri, The effect of cadmium on growth and antioxidant responses in the saffl ower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) callus, Turk J Agric For., 36, 145-152 (2012)
  26. Mishra S., Srivastava S., Tripathi R.D., Govindarajan R., Kuriakose S.V. and Prasad M.N.V., Phytochelatin synthesis and response of antioxidants during cadmium stress in Bacopa monnieri L., Plant Physiol Biochem., 44,25-37 (2006)
  27. Romero-Puertas M.C., Corpas F.J., Rodriguez-Serrano M., Gomez L.A., del Rio L.A. and Sandalio L.M., Diff erential expression and regulation of antioxidative enzymes by cadmium in pea plants, J Plant Physiol,164, 1346-1357 (2007)
  28. Saffar A., Bagherieh Najjar M.B. and Mianabadi M., Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Response to Cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana,Journal of Biological Sciences,9, 44-50 (2009)
  29. Sai Kachout S., Ben Mansoura A., Leclerc J.C., Jaffel K., Rejeb M.N. and Ouerghi Z., Effects of heavy metals on antioxidant activities of Atriplex hortensis and Atriplex rosea, Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 83,37-43 (2009)