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Frogs and their Microhabitat Preferences in the Agricultural and Secondary Forest areas in the Vicinity of Mt. Kalatungan Mountain, Bukidnon, Philippines

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science and Mathematics, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, PHILIPPINES

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (10), Pages 51-63, October,10 (2013)


An inventory of amphibians was conducted in the lower montane forest and immediate vicinity of Mt. Kalatungan, Bukidnon. The study was conducted in 2 sampling sites of the mountain. Site 1 was an agricultural area, located at 1100-1200 masl while sampling site 2 was a secondary forest, located at 1300-1600 masl. Using visual encounter survey, a total of 94 individuals belonging to 15 different species was collected. A total of 60% of the amphibians observed were Philippine endemics; six species were under Vulnerable Category in the 2004 IUCN Red List Threatened Species; one species was listed under the near threatened category; and one species was listed under the endangered category. Species richness was moderate (H’=2.145) and evenness was relatively higher (E=0.792) in the lower montane forest and vicinity of Mt. Kalatungan. Most of the recorded amphibians were observed to inhabit type IV microhabitat (substrate level or the ground litter microhabitat) suggesting that the area still has considerable thermal and hydrologic conditions for the survival of amphibians and/or it also suggests good water quality and watershed condition. There are however the existence of many threats such as deforestation, illegal logging and mining, clearing of the forest for agriculture, hunting and overexploitation of forest resources by the communities and increasing human settlements in the area. Protection of the remaining habitat and promotion of conservation programs in Mt. Kalatungan is needed to minimize the decline of amphibian population in the area.


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