9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Comparative Studies on the Production of Glucose and High Fructose Syrup from Tuber Starches

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram- 695 017, Kerala, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (10), Pages 68-75, October,10 (2013)

Abstract

Glucose and high fructose syrup (HFS) are made extensively from corn starch and the high cost of production demands the lookout for alternative starches as raw material. The present study was to compare the potential of tuber starches such as arrowroot, cassava, Curcuma, Dioscorea, sweet potato and Xanthosoma with corn starch for HFS production. The process consisted of liquefaction followed by saccharification and isomerization using three enzymes such as Liquezyme, Dextrozyme and Sweetzyme respectively. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) profile showed that the starch conversion to glucose for the starches was equivalent or superior to that for corn starch. Sugar profile of the saccharified slurry had a composition of 98.28 to 98.84% glucose, maltose (1.03 to 1.69%) and maltotriose (0.03 to 0.10%) for arrowroot, Curcuma and cassava, while a lower range of glucose (94.76-97.28%) and higher range of maltose and maltotriose (2.0-4.3% and 0.49-0.75% respectively) for the other starches. Percentage conversion to fructose as well as fructose yield (g/100g starch) was the highest for arrowroot and Curcuma starches. Tuber starches offer promise as substitute for corn starch in the production of glucose and high fructose syrup.

References

  1. Cock J.H., (Ed.) Cassava - NeCrop, Boulder, Westview Press,(1985)
  2. Piyachomkwan K., Walapatit S., Vetthaisong T., Keawsompong S. and Sriroth K., Advanced technology in ethanol production from cassava chips, in the 2nd International Symposium Cassava, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,14-15 june (2005)
  3. Shetty J., Chotani G., Gang D. and Bates D., Cassava as an alternative feedstock in the production of renewable transportation fuel, Intern. Sugar J.,109,3-11 (2007)
  4. Bindumole V.R. and Balagopalan C., Saccharification of sweet potato flour for ethanol production, 27(1), 89-93 (2001)
  5. Blanchard P.H. and Katz F.R., Starch hydrolyzates, in: Stephan A.M., (Ed.), Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 6.Hanover L.M. and White J.S., Manufacturing, composition and applications of fructose, 724S-732S (1993)
  6. Hanover L.M. and White J.S., Manufacturing, composition and applications of fructose,Am.J.Clin.Nutr.,58(5),724S-732S (1993)
  7. White J.S., Fructose syrup: production, properties and applications, in: Schenck, F.W. and Hebeda, R.E., (Eds.), Starch Hydrolysis Products- Worldwide Technology, Production and Applications, VCH Publishers Inc, New York, 177-200 (1992)
  8. Cabello C., Amylases using in glucose syrup production, in: Seminário brasileiro de tecnologia enzimática - enzitec, 4, Rio de Janeiro, Anais, 1, V1-V3 (1999)
  9. Schenck F.W. and Hebeda R.E., (Eds.), Starch hydrolysis products – worldwide technology, production and applications, VCH Publishers, New York (1992)
  10. Abraham E.T., Krishnaswamy C. and Ramakrishna S.V., Hydrolytic depolymerization of starch raw materials, Starch/ Stärke, 40, 387-392 (1988)
  11. Aschengreen N.H., Nielsen B.H., Rosendal P. and Ostergaard J., Liquefaction, saccharifaction and isomerization of starches from sources other than corn, Starch/Stärke, 31(2), 64-66 (1979)
  12. Gorinstein S. and Lii C., The effects of enzyme hydrolysis on the properties of potato, cassava and amaranth starches, Starch/ Stärke, 44(2), 461-466 (1992)
  13. Voragen A.G.J., Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates, Review, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 9(6), 328-335 (1998)
  14. Bandlish R.K., Hess J.M., Epting K.L., Vieille C. and Kelly R.M., Glucose-to-fructose conversion at high temperatures with xylose (glucose) isomerases from Streptomyces murinus and two hyperthermophilic Thermotoga species, Biotechnol Bioeng., 80(2), 185-194 (2002)
  15. Van der Veen M.E., Van der Goot A.J. Boom R.M., Production of glucose syrups in highly concentrated systems, Biotechnol. Progr., 21(2), 598- 602 (2005)
  16. Arasaratnam V. and Balasubramaniam K., Synergistic action of - aylase and glucoamylase on raw corn, Starch/Starke,45(6), 231-233 (1993)
  17. Regy Johnson, Moorthy S.N. and Padmaja G., Comparative production of glucose and high fructose syrup from cassava and sweet potato roots by direct conversion techniques, Inn. Food Sci. Emer. Technol., 10,616-620 (2009)
  18. Moorthy S.N. and Padmaja G., A rapid titrimetric method for the determination of starch content in cassava tubers, J. Root Crops, 28(1), 30-37 (2002)
  19. Regy Johnson, Moorthy S.N. and Padmaja G., Enzyme kinetics in the liquefaction and saccharification of cassava starch for High Fructose Syrup (HFS) production, in stNational Seminar on Root and Tuber Crops NSRTC 1, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, 246-256 (2004)
  20. Regy Johnson, Moorthy S.N. and Padmaja G, Optimized parameters for the enzyme catalysed liquefaction and saccharification of sweet potato starch, J. Root Crops, 31(1), 7-13 (2005)
  21. Nelson N., A photometric adaptation of the somogyi method for determination of glucose, J. Biol. Chem., 153,375-380 (1944)
  22. Somogyi M., Notes on sugar determination, J. Biol. Chem., 195, 19-23 (1952)
  23. Bergmeyer H.U. and Bernt E., D-glucose: Determination with GOD and POD, in: Bergmeyer, H. U. (Ed.), Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, vol. 3, New York, Academic Press, 1205- 1212 (1974)
  24. Chen W.P. and Anderson A.W., Extraction of hemicelluloses ryegrass straw for the production of glucose isomerase and the use of the resulting straw residue for animal feed, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 22(3), 519-531 (1980)
  25. GenStat 7th, DE 3, Service Pack 1, Version 7.2.0.220, Lawes Agricultural Trust, VSN International Ltd., UK. (2007)
  26. Moorthy S.N., Physicochemical and functional properties of tropical tuber starches – a review, Starch/ Stärke, 54,559-592 (2002)
  27. Rasper V., Investigations on some starches from some West African root crops, in Proc. International Symposium of Tropical Root Crops, 2(6), Trinidad, 48-61 (1967)
  28. Tian S.J., Rickard J.E. and Blanshard J.M.V., Physicochemical properties of Sweet Potato starch, J. Sci. Food Agric., 57, 459-491 (1991)
  29. Lii C.Y. and Chang S.M., Studies on the starches in Taiwan, Sweet potato, cassava, yam and arrowroot starches, in Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. Republic of China, 2, 416-423 (1978)
  30. Jyothi A.N., Moorthy S.N. and Vimala B., Physico-chemical and functional properties of starch from two species of Curcuma,Intern. J. Food Prop., 6, 135-145 (2003)
  31. Arasaratnam V., Thayananthan K. and Balasubramanian K., Sugar syrup (DE 50-70) from corn flour, Starch/Stärke, 50,95-98 (1998)
  32. Berghofer E. and Sarhaddar S., Production of glucose and high fructose syrup by enzymatic direct hydrolysis of cassava roots, Proc. Biochem., 32, 910-915 (1988)
  33. Ghildyal N.P., Ramakrishna M. and Lonsane B.K., Comparative economics of the production of high fructose syrup from cassava chips and cassava starch, Starch/ Stärke, 41(2), 64-68 (1989)
  34. Souza R.C.R. and Andrade C.T., Investigation of the gelatinization and extrusion processes of corn starch, Adv. Polymer Technol., 21(1), 17–24 (2001)
  35. Snyder E.M., Industrial Microscopy of starches, in: Whistler R.L., BeMillen J.N., Paschall E.F., (Eds.), Starch- chemistry and technology, 2nd ed, Academic Press, New York, (1984)
  36. Rickard J.E., Asaoka M., Blanshard J.M.V., The physicochemical properties of cassava starch, Trop. Sci., 31, 189-207 (1991)
  37. Perez E.E., Breene W.M. and Bahnassey Y.A., Gelatinization profiles of Peruvian carrot, cocoyam and potato starches as measured with Brabender Viscoamylograph, Rapid Visco Analyzer and DSC, Starch/ Stärke 50, 14-16 (1998a)
  38. Perez E.E., Breene W.M. and Bahnassey Y.A., Variation in the gelatinization profiles of cassava, sago and arrowroot native starches as measured with different thermal and mechanical methods, Starch/ Stärke, 50, 70-72 (1998b)
  39. Collado L.S., Mabesa R.C. and Corke H., Genetic variation in the physical properties of sweet potato starch, J. Agric. Food Chem., 47, 4195-4201 (1999)
  40. Kainuma K., Structure and chemistry of the starch granule, in: Stumpf P.K. and Conn E.E. (Eds.), The Biochemistry of Plants, vol.14, Academic Press, New York, (1988)
  41. Delpeuch F. and Favier J.C., Characteristics of starches from tropical food plants, - amylase hydrolysis, swelling and solubility patterns, Ann. Technol. Agric., 29, 53-67 (1980)
  42. Noda T., Takahata Y. and Nagata Y., Developmental changes in properties of sweet potato starch, Starch/Stärke, 44, 405-409 (1992)
  43. Moorthy S.N. and Padmaja G., Comparative study on digestibility of raw and cooked starch of different tuber crops, J. Root Crops, 17, 255-258 (1991)
  44. Nebesny E., Rosicka J. and Pierzgalski T., Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat starch into glucose, Starch/ Stärke, 50,337-341 (1998)
  45. Chen W.P. and Chan Y.C., Production of high-fructose syrup and high-protein flour from broken rice, J. Sci. Food Agric., 35, 1128-1135 (1984)
  46. Nebesny E., Rosicka J. and Tkaczyk M., Influence of conditions of corn starch enzymatic hydrolysis on physicochemical properties of glucose syrups, Starch/ Stärke, 56, 132-137 (2004)
  47. Morrison W.R., Starch lipids: a reappraisal, Starch/ Stärke, 33, 408-410 (1981)
  48. Moorthy S.N., Wenham J.E., Blanshard J.M.V., Effect of Solvent extraction on the gelatinization properties of starch and flour of five cassava varieties, J. Sci. Food Agric., 72,329-336 (1996)
  49. MacAllister R.V., Nutritive sweeteners made from starch, in: Tipson S., Horton D., (Eds.), Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academic Press, New York, 36, 15-56 (1979)
  50. Khalid M. and Markakis P., Production of high fructose syrup from cassava starch, in: Charalambous, G., Inglett, G. E., (Eds.), The Quality of Food and Beverages; Chemistry and Technology, London, Academic press, 319-326 (1981)
  51. Nikolov Z.L., Meagher M.M. and Reilly P.J., Kinetics, equilibrium and modeling of the formation of oligosaccharides from D-glucose with Aspergillus niger glucoamylase I and II, Biotechnol. Bioeng.,34, 694–704 (1989)
  52. Rastall R.A., Adlard M.W. and Bucke C., Synthesis of heterooligosaccharides by glucoamylase in reverse, Biotechnol. Lett., 13, 5014 (1991)
  53. Fullbrook P.D., The enzymatic production of glucose syrups, in: Dziedzic S.Z., Kearsley M.W., (Eds.), Glucose syrups, Science and Technology, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 65–115 (1984)
  54. Reeve A., Starch hydrolysis: processes and equipment, in: Schenck F.W., Hebeda R.E., (Eds.), Starch hydrolysis products, worldwide technology, production and applications, VCH Publishers, New York, 79-120 (1992)
  55. Regy Johnson and Padmaja G., Utilization of Cassava Fibrous Residue for the Production of Glucose and High Fructose Syrup, Industrial Biotechnology,7(6),448-455 (2011)
  56. Dziedzic S.Z., Production and physico-chemical properties of isomerized glucose syrups, Starch/ Stärke, 33(11), 369-372 (1981)