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Structural and tectonic deformation of the Tibetan plateau since Cretaceous: An upshot of Indian-Eurasian collision

Author Affiliations

  • 1Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and University of Chinese Academy of Science,No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R. China 100049 and COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
  • 2Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and University of Chinese Academy of Science,No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R. China 100049
  • 3Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and University of Chinese Academy of Science,No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R. China 100049
  • 4COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
  • 5Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and University of Chinese Academy of Science,No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R. China 100049 and COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
  • 6Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and University of Chinese Academy of Science,No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R. China 100049
  • 7Key Laboratory of Continental Collision and Plateau Uplift, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China and University of Chinese Academy of Science,No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R. China 100049

Int. Res. J. Earth Sci., Volume 6, Issue (9), Pages 9-18, September,25 (2018)

Abstract

The Himalaya, Tibet, and the Karakorum are the most spectacular upshot resulted in response to the Indian and Eurasian plate collision.The collision resulted in the crustal thickening and shortening of the region during the Cenozoic era with an estimated magnitude of >50%. Tibet is further distributed into North, Central, and the Southern segments, which are constrained and parted by different faults/thrusts and sutures zones. A number of geophysical and geological researcheshave been approved and are still continuing to understand the tectonic activities going on in the area. Late Cenozoic has been marked as an important era in developing of most noticeable changes occurred in the region including of;east-western crustal extension alongthe central Tibet, as well as the clockwise rotation of the Tibetan plateau (since ~10-13 Ma). This extension lead to the generationof grabens, strike-slip faults and resultingthe uplift of the central Tibet. The tremendous magmatic activity occurred in Lhasa block during Cambrian era, are believed to be the product of subduction of Proto-Tethyan Ocean underneath the Australian Gondwana. Similarly, the Late Devonian to early Carboniferous magmatism is associated with the back-arc evolved in the Songdo-Tethyan Ocean, while the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic magmatism is associated with the development of Indus-Yarlung-Zangbo Tethyan back-arc basin. However, climatic research of thesouthAsia highlighted that the uplift period of the Tibetan plateau was initiated duringLate-Miocene (~8 Ma). The calculated NS crustal shortening and EW extensional rates of the Central Tibetan plateau alongAltyn Tagh Fault are about ~10-12mm/yr. and ~8-10mm/yr., respectively withless than 20km of the slip; which is identical to the GPS studies of the region. The cooling and exhumation events (not later than ~22-25Ma) in the southcentral Tibetan plateau are the product of the Cenozoic collision.

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