6th International Virtual Congress (IYSC-2020) And Workshop. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Biology, host range and management options for Papaya mealybug in Africa

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Biodiversity Conservation, School of Life Science and Bioengineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology P. O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania and African Development Bank Capacity Building Project under Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania
  • 2Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Biodiversity Conservation, School of Life Science and Bioengineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology P. O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania
  • 3Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Biodiversity Conservation, School of Life Science and Bioengineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology P. O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 49-57, April,8 (2019)

Abstract

Papaya mealybug (Paraccocus margnatus) is a destructive insect pest with varied range of host plant species of economic importance to human worldwide. Management of the mealybug is commonly synthetic chemicals, however, the method is challenged by the ability of the insect to excrete a heavy white waxy that covers its body, environmental safeness on humans and non-target organisms and resistance by the pest. Other pest management options including cultural, biological and application of natural botanical extracts options are available in the literature but have not been fully tested in Africa. This review discusses besides biology and host range, some potential pesticidal plants that can be used in managing papaya mealybug in Africa.

References

  1. Miller D.R., Williams D.J. and Hamon A.B. (1999)., Notes on a new mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) pest in Florida and the Caribbean: the papaya mealybug, Paracoccu marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink., Insecta Mundi., 13(3-4).
  2. Noyes J.S. and Schauff M.E. (2003)., New Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera) from Papaya Mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae)., Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 105, 180-185.
  3. Tanwar R.K., Jeyakumar P. and Vennila S. (2010)., Papaya mealybug and its management strategies., National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, 1-26.
  4. CABI Datasheet (2015)., Invasive species compendium., Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug). Available in http:// www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/39201.
  5. Miller D.R. and Miller G.L. (2000)., Taxonomic information on Paracoccus marginatus., Technical, Meeting and Workshop for the Biological Control of the Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccu marginatus, in the Caribbean. St. Kitts, West Indies, 25-26 July 2000.
  6. Matile-Ferrero D., Etienne J. and Tiego G. (2000)., Introduction of two important pests to French Guiana: Maconellicoccus hirsutus and Paracoccus marginatus (Hem., Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae)., Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 105(5), 485-486.
  7. CABI/EPPO (2012)., Paracoccus marginatus., [Distribution map]. Distribution maps of plant pests, no. June. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 614 (1st revision).
  8. Germain J.F., Sookar P., Buldawoo I., Permalloo S. and Quilici S. (2014)., Three species of potentially invasive scale insects new for Mauritius (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae). (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae)., Bull. Entomol. Soc. France., 119(1), 27-29.
  9. Germain J.F., Pastou D., Lucas E., Minatchy J. and Hostachy B. (2010)., Paracoccus marginatus, une nouvelle cochenille sur papayer à la Réunion: Dégâts impressionnants sur les cultures., Phytoma-La Défense des végétaux, 633, 9-10.
  10. IITA (2015)., Food security and livelihoods at risk as destructive pest invades Tanzania., The fast spreading and highly destructive papaya mealybug reaches Tanzania. IITA Press Release, 20 April 2015.
  11. Goergen G. (2010)., Insect biodiversity for sustainable management of natural resources., Review, 4, 12-14. Accessed at http://r4dreview.org/2010/03/.
  12. Krishnan J.U., George M., Ajesh G., Jithine J.R., Lekshmi N.R. and Deepasree M.I. (2016)., A review on Paracoccus marginatus Williams, papaya mealy bug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)., J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 4, 528-533.
  13. Miller D.R. and Miller G.L. (2002)., Redescription of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granarae Willink (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), including descriptions of the immature stages and adult male., Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 104(1), 1-23.
  14. Singh S. and Kaur G. (2016)., Record of Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink and its Natural Enemies on Papaya, Guava, Grapes and Plumeria in Punjab., Pest Manag. Hort. Ecosy., 22(1), 45-50.
  15. Galanihe L.D. (2010)., Chemical control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink in Sri Lanka., Crop Life Sri. Pla. Pro. Ind. J., 27-30.
  16. Gowda G.B., Chakravarthy A.K., Jagadish K.S. and Kandakoor S.B. (2014)., Ecology and distribution of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in South Karnataka., Curr. Biot., 7(4), 266-274.
  17. Galanihe L.D., Jayasundera M.U.P., Vithana A., Asselaarachchi N. and Watson G.W. (2011)., Occurrence, distribution and control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien pest in Sri Lanka., Trop. Agric.R. Exten., 13(3), 81-86.
  18. Prishanthini M. and Vinobaba M. (2014)., Efficacy of some selected botanical extracts against the Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)., Int. J. Sci. Res. Pub., 4(3), 1-6.
  19. Anon (2009)., Banana mealybug, identification and control (in Sinhala). Leaflet., Plant protection service, department of agriculture, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
  20. Cham D., Davis H., Obeng-Ofori D. and Owu E. (2011)., Host range of the newly invasive mealybug species Paracocccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in two ecological zones of Ghana., Res. Zool., 1(1), 1-7.
  21. Goergen G., Vayssières J.F., Gnanvossou D. and Tindo M. (2011)., Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa., Env. Entomol., 40(4), 844-854.
  22. Thiombiano L. and Solal-Céligny A. (2015)., Economic impact assessment of the classical biological control of Papaya Mealybug in Ghana., J. Agric., 2(5), 1-18.
  23. Silva J.D., Rashid Z., Nhut D.T., Sivakumar D., Gera A., Souza M.T. and Tennant P. (2007)., Papaya (Carica papaya L.) biology and biotechnology., Tree .Forest. Sci. Biotech., 1(1), 47-73.
  24. Peña, J. E., Pantoja A., Osborne L., Duncan R., Coss-Flores M. D., Meister C. and Hammon A. (2005)., Homopteran and mite pests of papaya and their control., Proceedings of the Florida State. Hort. Soc., 118, 221-227.
  25. FAO. (2011)., Support for the control of new invasive Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus) by classical biological control in Ghana., FAO Representation in Ghana, TCP/GHA/3404.
  26. Sarma A.K. (2013)., Invasion of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus in Assam., Indian J. Entomol., 75(4), 355-356.
  27. Bahlai C.A., Xue Y., McCreary C.M., Schaafsma A.W. and Hallett R.H. (2010)., Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans., Plos one., 5(6), e11250.
  28. Khan M.A. (2016)., Efficacy of insect growth regulator Buprofezin against Papaya mealy bug., J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 4(4), 730-733.
  29. Pastorok R.A., Bartell S.M., Ferson S. and Ginzburg L.R. (2016)., Ecological modeling in risk assessment: chemical effects on populations, ecosystems, and landscapes., CRC Press.
  30. Fantke P. and Jolliet O. (2016)., Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides., Int. J. Lif. Cyc. Ass., 21(5), 722-733.
  31. Chen P.S., Wong Y.J. and Wu J.W. (2011)., Preliminary report on the occurrence of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, in Taiwan., J. Tai. Agr. R., 60(1), 72-76.
  32. Seni A. and Chongtham S. (2013)., Papaya mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a current threat to agriculture-a review., Agric. Rev., 34(3), 216-222.
  33. Sakthivel N. and Qadri S.M.H. (2010)., Impact of insecticides and botanicals on population build-up of predatory coccinellids in mulberry., J. Bio., 3(1), 85-87.
  34. Walker A., Hoy M. and Meyerdirk D. (2011)., Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)., 1, 1-7.
  35. Kirsur M.V., Sakthivel N., Mahimasanthi A., Balasaraswathi S. and Bindroo B.B. (2014)., Weed hosts of papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus) in mulberry ecosystem of Tamil Nadu., Ind. J. Ser., 53, 78-80.
  36. Ben-Dov Y. (2015)., Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink., http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/pseudoco/Paracoccusmarginatus.
  37. Amarasekare K.G., Mannion C.M., Osborne L.S. and Epsky N.D. (2014)., Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions., Env. Entomol., 37(3), 630-635.
  38. Bhawane G.P., Gaikwad S.M., Mamlayya A.B. and Aland S.R. (2011)., Life cycle of Holotrichia karschi Brenske (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae)., The Bioscan, 6(3), 471-474.
  39. Sankar C., Saravanan P., Kathiravan J., Marimuthu R. and Prabhukumar S. (2012)., Short note on classical biological control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in tapioca by an encyrtide parasitoid, Acerophagus papayae in Perambalur District of Tamilnadu, India., 18(2), 213-216.
  40. Lalitha N., Kumar S.M.V., Saha A.K. and Kumar S.N. (2015)., Report of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus in mulberry in West Bengal., Cur. Biot., 9(1), 82-85.
  41. Mastoi M.I., Azura A.N., Muhammad R., Idris A.B. and Ibrahim Y. (2011)., First report of Papaya mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Malaysia., Australian J. Basic. App. Sci., 5(7), 1247-1250.
  42. Sakthivel N. and Selvaraju N.G. (2011)., Host plants of papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink.) in Tamil Nadu., Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 24(4), 567-569.
  43. Walker A., Hoy M. and Meyerdirk D.E. (2003)., Papaya Mealybug., Univ. Florida Featured Crea-tures.http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/fruit/mealybugs/papaya-mealybug.htm.
  44. Piragalathan A., Pakeerathan K., Thirukkumaran G. and Mikunthan G. (2014)., Efficacy of different insecticides and bio-rationals against papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemipter: Pseudococidae) infestation in home gardens., Middle-East J. Sci., Res., 21(10), 1689-1693.
  45. Sharma S., Bhatia S., Sharma J., Andotra S., Sudan M. and Sharma K. (2013)., First record of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien species on papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Jammu (J&K), India., Munis. Entomol., Zool., 8(2), 664-671.
  46. Noureen N., Hussain M., Fatima S. and Ghazanfar M. (2016)., Cotton Mealybug Management: a Review., J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 4(4), 657-663.
  47. Khoo S.G. (1974)., Scale insects and mealybugs, their biology and control., Malay. Nat. J., 27, 124-130.
  48. Chellappan M., Lawrence L., Indhu P., Cherian T. and Anitha S. (2013)., Host range and distribution pattern of papaya mealy bug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on selected Euphorbiaceae hosts in Kerala., J. Trop. Agr., 51(1), 51-59.
  49. Heu R.A., Fukada M.T. and Conant P. (2007)., Papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)., State of Hawaii New Pest Advisory. Department of Agriculture no. 04-03 March 2007.
  50. Saengyot S. and Burikam I. (2011)., Host plants and natural enemies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Thailand., Thai. J. Agric. Sci., 44(3), 197-205.
  51. Tanwar R.K., Jeyakumar P. and Monga D. (2007)., Mealybugs and their management Technical Bulletin 19, September, 2007., National Centre for Integrated Pest Management LBS Building, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, 110, 012.
  52. Muniappan R., Meyerdirk D.E., Sengebau F.M., Berringer D.D. and Reddy G.V.P. (2006)., Classical biological control of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Republic of Palau., Florida. Entomol., 89(2), 212-217.
  53. Seni A. and Sahoo A.K. (2015)., Efficacy of certain insecticides on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae)., J. Entomol. Zool. Studies., 3(4), 14-17.
  54. Walker A., Hoy M. and Meyerdirk D. (2006)., Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae))., EENY-302. Featured Creatures. Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  55. Anjitha A., Krishnamoorthy S.V. and Kuttalam S. (2013)., Toxicity of insecticides to the coccinellid predators, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant and Scymnus coccivora Ayyar of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink., J. Biol. Cont., 27(1), 18-23.
  56. Suresh S., Jothimani R., Sivasubrmanian P., Karuppuchamy P., Samiyappan R. and Jonathan E.I. (2010)., Invasive mealybugs of Tamil Nadu and their management., Karnataka. J. Agr. Sci., 23, 6-9.
  57. Van Driesche R.G. and Bellows J.R. (1996)., Biological Control., Chapman and Hall, NY., 539.
  58. Chailleux A., Bearez P., Pizzol J., Desneux E.A., Romero R. and Desneux N. (2013)., Potential for combined use of parasitoids and generalist predators for biological control of the key invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta., J. Pest. Sci., 86, 533-541.
  59. Ferracini C., Ingegno B.L., Navone P., Ferrari E., Mosti M., Tavella L. and Alma A. (2012)., Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy., J. Econom. Entomol., 105(4), 1311-1319.
  60. Sánchez N.E., Patricia C.L. and María G. (2009)., Spatial patterns of parasitism of the solitary parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)., Env. Entomol., 38(2), 365-374.
  61. Ghoneim K. (2014)., Predatory insects and arachnids as potential biological control agents against the invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in perspective and prospective., J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 2(2), 52-71.
  62. Kauffman W.C., Myerdirk D.E., Miller D., Schauff M., Hernandez H.G. and Jimenez J.A.V. (2001)., Papaya mealybug biological control in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic., ESA Annual Meeting-2001: An Entomologica1 Odyssey of ESA.
  63. Meyerdirk D.E. and Kauffman W.C. (2001)., Status on the development of a biological control program for Paracoccus marginatus Williams, papaya mealybug, in the Caribbean. Paper presented at IV International Scientific Seminar of Plant Health., Veradero, Cuba., June 10-15.
  64. Thangamalar A., Subramanian S. and Mahalingam C.A. (2010)., Bionomics of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus and its predator Spalgius epius in mulberry ecosystem., Karnataka J Agric Sci., 23, 39-41.
  65. Rasheed V.A., Krishna T.M., Bhaskar B. and Devaki K. (2017)., Biological Control of Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara De Willink) (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on Papaya., Int. J. Pure. App. Biosci., 5(2), 249-252.
  66. François T., Dongmo J., Michel P., Lambert S.M., Ndifor F., Nangue W. and Henri P. (2009)., Comparative essential oils composition and insecticidal effect of different tissues of Piper capense L., Piper guineense Schum et Thonn., Piper nigrum L. and Piper umbellatum L. grown in Cameroon., Africa. J. Biotech., 8(3), 424-431.
  67. Fazlullah Mastoi M.I., Ehsan-ul-Haq Mahmood T., Gilal A.A., Arshad A., Bhatti A.R. and Shehzad A. (2017)., Exploration of natural enemy fauna of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on different host plants at Islamabad Pakistan., Pak. Entomol., 39(1), 23-27.
  68. Amarasekare K.G., Mannion C.M. and Epsky N.D. (2009)., Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)., Biol. Contr., 51(1), 91-95.
  69. Hedge C. (1992)., A global survey of the biogeography of the Labiatae., In: Harley RM, Reynolds T, editors. Advances in labiatae science. UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 7-17.
  70. Devendran G., Balasubramanian U., District T. and Nadu T. (2011)., Qualitative phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves., Asian J Plant Sci Res, 1(4), 44-48.
  71. Gülçin I. (2011)., Antioxidant Activity of Eugenol: A Structure-Activity Relationship Study., J. Med. Food., 14(9), 975-985. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2010.0197.
  72. Pandey A.K., Singh P. and Tripathi N.N. (2014)., Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview., Asian Pacific J. Tro. Biomed., 4(9), 682-694.
  73. Ali H.I., Sabiha S.S., Rekha S.B., Nesa M. and Islam N. (2017)., Lethal action of Argemone mexicana L. extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae and Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) adults., J. Pharm. Phyt., 6(1), 438-441.
  74. Brahmachari G., Gorai D. and Roy R. (2013)., Argemone mexicana: chemical and pharmacological aspects., Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 23(3), 559-575.
  75. Joshi N., Bhatt S., Dhyani S. and Nain J. (2013)., Phytochemical screening of secondary metabolites of Argemone mexicana linn. Flowers., Int. J. Curr. Pharm. Res., 5(2), 144-147.
  76. Granados E.C., Pérez P.R., Bautista M.N., Alonso H.N., Sánchez G.J.A., Martinez T.S.H. and Sánchez M.S. (2015)., Insecticidal effect of botanical extracts on developmental stages of Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)., Southwestern. Entomol., 40(1), 97-111.
  77. Sharma C.T., Patil G.P., Sharma N.S. and Zambare S.P. (2016)., Effect of Argemone mexicana leaves extract at different solvents on gut of Heliothis armigera (Hub)., Int. J. Life. Sci. Scienti. Res, 2(3), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.21276/ijlssr.2016.2.3.18.
  78. Elango G., Rahuman A.A., Kamaraj C., Bagavan A., Zahir A.A., Santhoshkumar T. and Rajakumar G. (2012)., Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus., Indust. Cro. Prod., 36(1), 524-530.
  79. Ndakidemi P.A. and Dakora F.D. (2003)., Legume seed flavonoids and nitrogenous metabolites as signals and protectants in early seedling development., Functional Plant Biology, 30(7), 729-745. https://doi.org/10.1071/FP03042.
  80. Tchoumbougnang F.O., Jazet D.P.M., Sameza M.L., Fombotioh N., Vyry W.N.A., Henri A.Z.P. and Menut C. (2009)., Comparative essential oils composition and insecticidal effect of different tissues of Piper capense L., Piper guineense Schum. et Thonn., Piper nigrum L. and Piper umbellatum L. grown in Cameroon., Africa. J. Biot., 8(3), 424-431.
  81. Martins A.P., Salgueiro L., Vila R., Tomi F., Canigueral S., Casanova J. and Adzet T. (1998)., Essential oils from four Piper species., Phytochem., 49(7), 2019-2023.
  82. Matasyoh J.C., Wathuta E.M., Kariuki S.T. and Chepkorir R. (2011)., Entomology Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Piper capense essential oil against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae., J. Asia-Pacific Entomol., 14(1), 26-28.
  83. Prates H.T., Santos J.P., Waquil J. M., Fabris J.D., Oliveira A.B., Forster J.E. and Embrapa E. (1998)., Insecticidal activity of monoterpenes against Rhizopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum., J. Store Prod. Res., 34(4), 243-249.
  84. Kaou A.M., Mahiou-Leddet V., Hutter S., Aïnouddine S., Hassani S., Yahaya I. and Ollivier E. (2008)., Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants., J. ethnopharmacol., 116(1), 74-83.
  85. Silva A.C.R.D., Lopes P.M., Azevedo M.M.B.D., Costa D.C.M., Alviano C.S. and Alviano D.S. (2012)., Biological activities of a-pinene and β-pinene enantiomers., Molecules, 17(6), 6305-6316.