Earthworms as the modulators of soil properties
- 1Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004, India
- 2Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004, India
- 3Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004, India
- 4Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125004, India
Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 5, Issue (6), Pages 20-23, June,8 (2017)
The scientific literature dealing with the part of earthworms in modulating the soil properties including the gist of author’s study has been reviewed. Earthworms are known to enhance the soil fertility by increasing the levels of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that makes vermicompost suitable to use as fertilizer. Partly release of carbon as CO2 due to respiration and lowering of C/N ratio has been observed during vermicomposting. Earthworms increase the organic matter’s mineralization in soil by boosting the bacterial population and reducing soil erosion. This value additive property of earthworm makes them more capable of waste management too. Various types of agricultural and household wastes can be reduced to organic manure by the process of vermicomposting. Thus, the process of vermicomposting not only encourages the sustainable development but also helps in reducing the waste into value added organic fertilizer.
- Parikh S.J. and James B.R. (2012)., Soil: The Foundation of Agriculture., Nature Education Knowledge, 3(10), 2.
- Piearce T.G., Oates K. and Carruthers W.J. (1990)., A fossil earthworm embryo (Oligochaeta) from beneath a late bronze agemidden at Potterna, Wiltshire, UK., J. Zool. Land., 220(4), 537-542.
- Yadav J., Gupta R.K. and Kumar D. (2017)., Chances in C: N of different substrates during vermicomposting., Eco.Env. & Cons., 23(1), 368-372.
- Chauhan Prasad Ramprabesh (2014)., A Review: Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility and Factors Affecting their Population Dynamics., J Recent Adv Agr., 2(7), 277-284.
- Parthasarathi K., Ranganathan L.S., Anandi V. and Zeyer J. (2007)., Diversity of microflora in the gut and casts of tropical composting earthworms reared on different substrates., J. Env. Biol., 28(1), 87-97.
- Bouche M.B. (1977)., Strategies lombriciennes., Soil organisms components of ecosystems. (Lohm, U., and Persson, T. eds.), Biol Bull., Stockholm, 25, 122-132.
- Gajalakshmi S. and Abbasi S.A. (2004)., Earthworms and vermicomposting., IJBT, 3, 486-494.
- Singh Sandeep D., Yadav J. and Urmila (2017)., Assessment of nutrient status of vermicompost of leaf litter using Eisenia fetida., JEZS, 5(2), 1135-1137.
- Lavelle Patrick (1997)., Biology and ecology of earthworm. (3rd edn.), Chapman and Hall, London., Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 64(1), 78-79.
- Yadav J. and Gupta R.K. (2017)., Dynamics of nutrient profile during vermicomposting., Eco.Env.& Cons., 23 (1), 516-521.
- Desjardins T., Charpentier F., Pashanasi B., Pando-Bahuon A., Lavelle P. and Mariotti A. (2003)., Effects of earthworm inoculation on soil organic matter dynamics of a cultivated ultisol., Pedobiologia, 47(5-6), 835-841.
- Zhang X., Wang J., Xie H., Wang J. and Zech W. (2003)., Comparison of organic compounds in the particle-size fractions of earthworm casts and surrounding soil in humid Laos., Appl Soil Ecol., 23(2), 147-153.
- Chaudhuri P.S., Pal T.K., Nath S. and Dey S.K. (2012)., Effects of five earthworm species on some physico-chemical properties of soil., J Environ Biol., 33(4), 713-716.
- Patil B.B. (1993)., Soil and Organic Farming., In Proc. of the Training Program on ‘Organic Agriculture’. Institute of natural and Organic Agriculture, Pune, India.
- Vasanthy M., Seetha D.G., Karthiga A. and Susila S. (2012)., Bioconversion of fruit waste into vermicompost by employing Eudrilluseugeniaeand Eisenia fetida., IJPAES, 2(4), 245-252.
- Whalen J.K., Parmelee R.W., McCartnney D.A. and Vanarsdale L.J. (1999)., Movement of Nitrogen (N) from Decomposing Earthworm Tissue to Soil. Microbial and Nitrogen Pools., Soil Biol and Biochem., 31(4), 487-492.
- Christensen O. (1988)., The Direct effects of Earthworms on Nitrogen Turnover in Cultivated Soils., Ecological Bulletins. Copenhagen, Denmark, 39, 41-44.
- Lee K.E. (1985)., Earthworms, their Ecology and Relationships with Soil and Land Use., Academic Press, Sydney, 411.
- Nuutinen V., Pitkanen J., Kuusela E., Widbom T. and Lohilahti H. (1998)., Spatial variation of an earthworm community related to soil properties and yield in a grass-clover field., Appl. Soil Ecol., 8(1), 85-94.
- Haynes R.J., Fraser P.M., Tregutha R.J. and Piercy J.E. (1999)., Size and the activity of the microbial biomass and N, S and P availability in earthworm casts derived from arable and pastoral soil amended with plant residues., 6th International symposium on Earthworm Ecology., Vigo, Spain, Pedobiologia., 43(6), 568-573.
- Lachnicht S.L. and Hendrix P.F. (2001)., Interaction of earthworm Diplocardiamississippiensis (Megascolecidae) with microbial and nutrient dynamics in subtropical Spodosol., Soil Biol. Biochem., 33(10), 1411-1417.
- Morgan M. and Burrows I. (1982)., Earthworms/ Microorganisms interactions., Rothamsted Exp. Stn. Rep.
- Julius A., Idowu A.B., Ademolu K.O. and Atayese A.O. (2014)., Microbial diversity and digestive enzyme activities in the gut of earthworms found in sawmill industries in Abeokuta, Nigeria Bamidele., Int J. Trop. Biol., 62(3), 1241-1249.
- Aira M.M., Olcinaa J., Losada M.P. and Domingueza J. (2016)., Characterization of the bacterial communities of casts from Eisenia andreifed with different substrates., Appl Soil Ecol., 98, 103-111.
- Fujii K., Ikeda K. and Yoshida S. (2012)., Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms., Int. Microbiol., 15(3), 121-130.
- Krishnamoorthy R.V. and Vajranabhaiah S.N. (1986)., Biological activity of earthworm casts: An assessment of plant growth promoter levels in the casts., Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Anim. Sci.)., 95(3), 341-351.
- Ismail S.A. (2009)., The Earthworm Book., Other India Press, Apusa, Goa, 101.