3rd International Young Scientist Congress(IYSC-2017).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Optimized plant population for maize production in a semi-coral environment in Eastern Pemba, Tanzania

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Food Security and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 159 Zanzibar
  • 2Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3005 Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 5, Issue (3), Pages 5-12, March,8 (2017)

Abstract

Crop yields are closely related and dependent, within the prevailing environment, on plant population in the field. An experiment was conducted in Eastern Pemba to test performance of four varieties of maize under varying plant densities in a semi-coral coast. Densities of 44,444; 53,333 and 66,666 plants/ha corresponding respectively to intra-row spacings of 30, 25 and 20 cm in 75 cm wide rows were used. Average plant height and harvest index increased significantly (P < 0.05) as plant population ha-1 increased from 44,444 to 53,33; thereafter plant height did not increase significantly while harvest index decreased significantly. Dry matter yield increased continuously and significantly as population increased from 44,444 to 66,666. Grain yield, however, increased only with population increase to 53,333 (significantly) thereafter it declined though insignificantly (P < 0.05). Highest average yield of grains was about 4.3 tons/ha at 53,333 plants/ha while lowest was 3.2 t/ha at 44,444. Varieties behaved similarly with regard to grain yield, dry matter yield and cob length as population changed from 44,444 to 66,666 plants/ha. With regard to grain weight per cob, however, for example while varieties Staha and JKU the weight decreased as population increased from 53,333 to 66,666 plants/ha; with variety TMV-1 the weight increased while with variety Situka it leveled-off. Whatever was the variety, this study results show that the maize crop grain yield was optimized at or close to the intermediate plant population of 53,333 ha-1.

References

  1. Thimmappa V., Reddy M.S., Reddy U.V.B. and Reddy S.T. (2014)., Effect of N levels and plant densities on growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of kharif maize (Zea mays L.)., Crop Research, 47(1-3), 29-32.
  2. Fanadzo M., Chiduza C. and Mnkeni P.N.S. (2010)., Effect of inter-row spacing and plant population on weed dynamics and maize (Zea mays L) yield at Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme, Eastern Cape, South Africa., African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(7), 518-523.
  3. Songoi L., Ender M. and Junior A.M. (1998)., Dominancia apical de hibridos de milho de diferentes epicas em tres densidades de semeadura., In: Reuniao Annual do milho e sorgo 42, 1997. Erechim Anais…Erechim: CORTEL/ EMATER/FEPAGRO, 31-36.
  4. Flesch R.D. and Vieira L.C. (1999)., Espacamento e populacao de plantas na cultura do milho., Agropecuaria Catarinense, Florianopolis, 12(2), 28-31.
  5. Duvick D.N. (2005)., The contribution of breeding to yield advances in maize (Zea mays L)., In: Donald, L.S. (Ed). Advances in Agronomy. Academic Press, 86, 83-145.
  6. Tokatlidis I.S. (2013)., Adapting maize crop to climate change., Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33(1), 63-79.
  7. Marin C. and Weiner J. (2014)., Effects of density and sowing pattern on weed suppression and grain yield in three varieties of maize under high weed pressure., Weed Research, 54(5), 467-474. DOI: 10.IIII/wre.12101
  8. Haegete J.W., Becker R.J., Hanninger A.S. and Below F.E. (2014)., Row arrangement, P fertility and hybrid contributions to managing increased plant density in maize., Agronomy Journal, 106(5), 1838-1846.
  9. Bullock D.G., Nielsen R.L. and Nyquist W.E.A. (1988)., Growth analysis comparison of corn grown in conventional and equidistant plant spacing., Crop Science, Madison, 28(2), 254-258.
  10. Westgate M.E., Forcella F., Reicosky D.D. and Somsen J. (1997)., Rapid canopy closure for maize production in the Northern US Corn belt: radiation use efficiency and grain yield., Field Crops Research, Amsterdam, 49(2), 249-258.
  11. IPNI (2013)., Plant population and spacing for maize., International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI), 10.
  12. Zhang Q., Zhang L., Evers J., Van der Werf W., Zhang W. and Duan L. (2014)., Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator., Field Crops Research, 164, 82-89.
  13. Modolo A.J., Junior E.M., Storck L., Vargas T.O., Dallacort R., Baesso M.M. and Brandelero E.M. (2015)., Development and yield of maize (Zea mays) under plant densities using single and twin-row spacing., African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10(11), 1344-1350.
  14. Akmal M., Asim M. and Gilbert M. (2014)., Influence of seasonal variation in radiation use efficiency and crop growth of maize planted at various densities and N rates., Pakistan J. Agri. Sci., 51(4), 835-846.
  15. Dawadi D.R. and Sah S.K. (2012)., Growth and yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L) in relation to planting density and N levels during winter season in Nepal., Tropical Agricultural Research, 23(3), 218-227.
  16. Chim B.K., Omara P., Macnack N., Mullock J., Dhital S. and Raun W. (2014)., Effect of seed distribution and population on maize (Zea mays L) grain yield., International Journal of Agronomy, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/ 125258
  17. Liu J., Bu L., Zhu L., Luo S., Chen X. and Li S. (2014)., Optimizing plant density and plastic mulch to increase maize productivity and water use efficiency in semi-arid areas., Agronomy Journal, 106(4), 1138-1146.
  18. Berzsenyi Z., Arendas T., Bonis P. and Marton L.C. (2013)., Analysis of maize yield responses from the time of Béla Győrffy to the present., In: Marton, L.C. and Spitko, T. (eds.). Sixty Years of Hungarian Hybrid Maize 1953-2013. Pannonian Plant Biotechnology Association, Martonvasar, Hungary, 39-46.
  19. LI Wan-xing, LIU Yong-zhong, CAO Jin-jun, JIN Kun-peng, DU Yuan-yuan, WANG Hong-lan and ZHAO Wen-yuan (2012)., Study on the productivity of compact maize under the standard row spacing condition., Jornal of Hebei Agricultural Sciencies, 9, 2.
  20. Carlone M.R. and Russell W.A. (1987)., Response to plant densities and N levels for four maize cultivars from different Eras of breeding., Crop Science, 27(3), 465-470.
  21. Ciampitti I.A. and Vyn T.J. (2011)., A comprehensive study of plant density consequences on N uptake dynamics of maize plants from vegetative to reproductive stages., Field Crops Research, 121(1), 2-18.
  22. Al-Naggar A.M.M., Shabana R.A., Atta M.M.M. and Al-Khalil T.H. (2015)., Maize response to elevated plant density combined with lowered N-fertilizer rate is genotype-dependent., The Crop Journal, 3(2), 96-109.
  23. Antonietta M., Fenello D.D., Acciaresi H.A. and Guiamet J.J. (2014)., Senescence and field response to plant density in stay green and earlier-senescing maize hybrids from Argentina., Field Crops Research, 155, 111–119.
  24. Mansfield B.D. and Mumm R.H. (2014)., Survey of plant density tolerance in US maize germplasm., Crop Science, 54(1), 157-173.
  25. USDA-National Agricultural Statistical Service (USDA-NASS) (2012). Corn: Grain yield. United States, 1866 to date. USDANASS, Washington, DC., undefined, undefined
  26. http://quickstats.nass.usda.gov/results/B27F93A5–9648–3ECF-A23E–A870AFA3AF60?pivot = short_desc (accessed 22 October 2015), undefined, undefined
  27. K. Shin-Gu., Hamis Y.J., Mariam J.A., Abdula M.J., Kim S.K., Choi M.K., Ku B., Lee K.B., Park H.K., Ko J.K. and Park T.S. (2011)., Introduction and selection of improved open-pollinated maize varieties in Zanzibar., Korean Journal of International Agriculture, 23(1), 102-108.