First Report of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Bacterial Wilt Disease in Ethiopia
- 1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ambo Agricultural Research Center, Ambo, Ethiopia
- 2Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ambo Agricultural Research Center, Ambo, Ethiopia
- 3Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ambo Agricultural Research Center, Ambo, Ethiopia
Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 4, Issue (4), Pages 5-9, April,8 (2016)
Very recently a severe outbreak of ginger wilt disease was reported by agricultural bureau experts in Ethiopia, particularly in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People and Gambela Regional States. Based on the report, continuous survey was conducted during the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 to investigate the status of the disease, isolate and identify the causal patho¬gen. During the survey, about 1530 hectares of ginger plantation farms were visited and investigated. Disease incidence was estimated to 80-100%. In the field, disease symptoms like wilting of the lower leaves and a slight yellowing with upward progress of the wilt affecting the younger leaves followed by a complete yellowing and browning of the entire shoot was observed. Shoots become soft and completely rotted and break off easily from the underground rhizome. The entire shoot becomes flaccid and dries. When cross-section cut of a diseased rhizome was placed in a water-filled clear beaker, milky white bacterial streaming was evident. Isolations from collected diseased ginger plant samples on 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TZC) showed development of a bacterium characterized by fluidal, irregular and creamy white with pinkish red colonies. Using some biochemical tests and Nitrocellulose Membrane-Enzyme Linked Im-munosorbent Assay, all bacterial isolates were identified as Ralstonia solanacearum biovar III indicating that the disease is ginger bacterial wilt disease. Ginger wilt disease by Ralstonia solanacearum is well known as a limiting factor in the production of ginger elsewhere in the world, but this is the first report of an occurrence of ginger bacterial wilt disease in Ethiopia.
- Jansen P.C.M. (1981)., Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance., Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation Wageningen. (xii) + 327.
- Endrias Geta and Asfaw Kifle. (2011)., Production, processing and marketing of ginger in Southern Ethiopia., Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 3(7), 207-213.
- Paul Hepperly, Francis Zee, Russell Kai, Claire Arakawa, Mark Meisner, Bernard Kratky, Kert Hamamoto and Dwight Sato. (2004)., Producing Bacterial Wilt–Free Ginger in Greenhouse Culture., Soil and Crop Management, SCM-8, 1-6.
- Hugh R. and Leifson E. (1953)., The taxonomic significance of fermentative versus oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates by various negative bacteria., J Bacteriol. 66, 24-26.
- Gregersen T. (1978)., Rapid method for distinction of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacteria., Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. 5, 123-127.
- Bisen P.S. and Verma K. (1994)., Hand book of Microbilogy., CBS Publisher and Distributors, New Delhi, India, 1-199. ISBN: 81-239-0269-7.
- Schaad N.W. (1980)., Laboratory guide for the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria., Am. Phytopathol. Soc. St. Paul. Minn. 28-45.
- Kumar A., Sarma Y.R. and Priou S. (2002)., Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in ginger rhizomes using post-enrichment NCM-ELISA., Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops, 11(1), 35-40.
- International Potato Center (CIP). (2001)., CIP-NCM-ELISA kit for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato., Instruction Manual.
- He L.Y., Sequeira L. and Kelman A. (1983)., Characteristics of strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum from China., Plant Disease, 67, 1357-1361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PD-67-1357
- Kumar V., Singh B.M. and Sugha S.K. (1993)., Variation in isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum from Himachal Pradesh., Indian. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23, 232-236.
- Hayward A.C. (1964)., Characteristics of Pseudomonas solanacearum., J. Appl. Bacteriol., 27, 265-277.
- Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) (2012)., Control of Bacterial Wilt disease of Ginger through an Integrated Pest Management Program., 2012 Annual Report.